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«European Scientific Journal November edition vol. 8, No.27 ISSN: 1857 – 7881 (Print) e - ISSN 1857- 7431 EMPLOYMENT OF COLAIZZI'S STRATEGY IN ...»

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Step seven This step aimed to validate study findings using "member checking" technique. It was undertaken through returning the research findings to the participants and discussing the results with them. Participants' views on the study results were obtained directly via phone calls. This step was done by the main researcher as she took the approval from the participants in advance during the first interviewing. Eventually, all participants showed their satisfaction toward these results which entirely reflect their feelings and experiences.

Demonstrating Trustworthiness of the Study Findings:

Essentially, the qualitative research has to demonstrate trustworthiness in providing rigor and strength to the study validity and reliability in all stages including data collection, data analysis and descriptions (Speziale & Carpenter, 2007; Vivar, McQueen, Whyte, & Armayor, 2007). Trustworthiness approaches; credibility, dependability, confirmability, and transferability were undertaken throughout the study process.

A number of strategies were employed to add rigor to the study such as "member checking" which was achieved by getting agreement from the participants on the emerged results (Creswell, 2003; Creswell 2009; Marshall & Rossman 2006; Speziale & Carpenter, 2007). In addition, the researcher reflected her own presuppositions about the perceptions of altered body image and coping strategies using bracketing. As explained earlier, bracketing eradicates any bias inherent in researcher believes and attitudes (Creswell 2009; Marshall & European Scientific Journal November edition vol. 8, No.27 ISSN: 1857 – 7881 (Print) e - ISSN 1857- 7431 Rossman 2006). Peer review of the emerging ideas through discussions with the study supervisor and the independent researcher was also done. Regarding the process of translation, all transcripts were double checked by a bilingual translator who is competent in both Arabic and English. According to Creswell (2009), using of an external auditor who reviewed the whole process of the study and performed an additional checking for coding process and analysis was also applied. Finally, cross checking of the whole analysis process was done by the research supervisor.

Conclusion This paper described the process of descriptive phenomenology which was used in this study to explore the perceptions of body image changes in Jordanian adolescents undergoing chemotherapy and the coping strategies used to accommodate with these changes. Colaizzi's process of phenomenological data analysis showed an active strategy to achieve the description of living experience for those people. It includes understanding the data and identifying significant statements which in turn were converted into formulated meanings.

Thereafter, groups of theme clusters were developed to establish the final thematic construct.

Trustworthiness of the study findings was undertaken using different approaches and strategies to achieve each approach affectively. The accurate application of Colaizzi's process of descriptive phenomenology would provide and exhaustive description to the body of knowledge about human experience and therefore would be an effective strategy to establish the basis for future research.

References :

Ahern, K. (1999). Ten tips for reflexive bracketing. Qualitative Health Research, 9(3), 407Creswell, J. (2003). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches, (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

Creswell, J. (2009). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches, (3rd ed.). Los Angeles: SAGE Publication Ltd.

Fochtman, D. (2008). Phenomenology in pediatric cancer nursing research. Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing, 25(4), 185-192.

Gearing, R. (2004). Bracketing in research: A typology. Qualitative Health Research, 14(10), 1429-1452.

Laverty, S. (2003). Hermeneutic phenomenology and phenomenology: A comparison of European Scientific Journal November edition vol. 8, No.27 ISSN: 1857 – 7881 (Print) e - ISSN 1857- 7431 historical and methodological considerations. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 2(3), 1-29.

Lopez, K., and Willis, D. (2004). Descriptive versus interpretive phenomenology: Their contribution to nursing knowledge. Quality Health Research, 14, 726-735.

Marshall, C. and Rossman, G. B. (2006). Designing Qualitative Research, (4th ed.). London:

Sage Publications, Inc.

Mason, J. (2002). Qualitative Researching, (2nd ed.). London: SAGE Publication Ltd.

Polifroni, C., & Welch, M. (1999). Perspectives on Philosophy of Science in Nursing: An Historical and Contemporary Anthology. Philadelphia. New York. Baltimore. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.

Polit, D. F., and Beck, C. T. (2008). Nursing Research: Generating and Assessing Evidence for Nursing Practice. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.

Sanders, C. (2003). Application of Colaizzi's method: Interpretation of an auditable decision trail by a novice researcher. Contemporary Nurse Journal, 14(3), 292- 302.

Speziale, H.J. and Carpenter, D.R. (2007). Qualitative Research in Nursing: Advancing the Humanistic Imperative, (4th ed.). Philadelphia. Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins.

Van Manen, M. (1990). Researching Lived Experience: Human Science for an Action Sensitive Pedagogy. Ontario, Canada: The Althouse Press.

Vivar, C., McQueen, A., Whyte, D., and Armayor, N. (2007). Getting started with qualitative research: Developing a research proposal. Nurse Researcher, 14(3), 60-73.

Wojnar, D. and Swanson, K. (2007). Phenomenology: An exploration. Journal of Holistic

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