WWW.ABSTRACT.DISLIB.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Abstracts, online materials
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 42 |

«THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO CALLING OUT TO ISIS: THE ENDURING NUBIAN PRESENCE AT PHILAE A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE FACULTY OF THE DIVISION OF THE ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --

THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO

CALLING OUT TO ISIS: THE ENDURING NUBIAN PRESENCE AT PHILAE

A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO

THE FACULTY OF THE DIVISION OF THE HUMANITIES

IN CANDIDACY FOR THE DEGREE OF

DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

DEPARTMENT OF NEAR EASTERN LANGUAGES AND CIVILIZATIONS

BY

SOLANGE ASHBY

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS JUNE 2016 CONTENTS FIGURES

TABLES

ABBREVIATIONS

GLOSSARY

ABSTRACT

Introduction

Goals of this Study

Terminology

Geographic Terms and Political Designations

Graffiti Corpus

Unique Characteristics of Nubian Graffiti

Who were the “Nubians”?

Prior Scholarship

Publication of Graffiti

Publication of Temples

Nubian Graffiti

Temple Inscriptions as Evidence for Religious Use

Kushite Temple Building in Lower Nubia

Ptolemaic Philae

Conclusion

Chapter 1: Agreements

Introduction

Burkhardt’s Definition of the Corpus

Introduce the Corpus

Language Use

Shrines (wrk, g™.t) in Procession

What was the Political/Religious use of the Temples in this Period?

Temple Financial Transactions

Cult Associations

Nubians in the Egyptian Priesthood

Who Authored the Early Roman period Nubian Graffiti at Philae?

Why was Lower Nubia Important to Meroitic Kings in this Period?

Interregnum I: A Period Devoid of Dated Nubian Graffiti

Indications of Additional First Century AD Nubian Graffiti at Philae

Cult Association of Thoth Pnubs

Cult Association of Arensnuphis

Chapter 2: Extension of the Kingdom of Meroe into Lower Nubia

Introduction

Crisis of the Third Century

116 Wayekiye Family

118 Expanded Corpus of Graffiti

Change in Focus of the Nubian Graffiti

Festivals Performed by Nubians at Philae

126 Who came to Philae?

ii Civil Administrative Titles

Temple Administrative and Priestly Titles

Goldsmiths

Different Titles Used with Different Languages

Strategos or Pelamos?

Why was Lower Nubia Important to the Meroitic Kings in this Period?

What Was the Political and Religious Use of the Temples by Meroitic Rulers?

Political Use

170 Religious Use

173 Meroitic Royal Tombs and their Decorated Chapels

Interregnum II: A Period Devoid of Dated Nubian Graffiti

Chapter 3: Last Priests at Philae

Introduction to the Corpus

Language Use

Were the Last Priests at Philae Nubian?

Feet Graffiti

224 Who Came to Philae?

Priestly Titles

228 Cult Association Titles (κλιναρχος συνοδου)

What was the Political and Religious Use of the Temples by the Blemmye Kings?............. 237 Religious Use

237 Political Use

261 Why was Lower Nubia Important to the Blemmye and Noubade Kings?

Conclusion: Original Contributions to Scholarship

Appendix A: Phase I Nubian Inscriptions

Appendix B: Phase II Nubian Inscriptions

Appendix C: Phase II Meroitic- Language Nubian Inscriptions

Appendix D: Phase III Nubian Inscriptions

Bibliography

iii FIGURES Figure 1: Location of Nubian Inscriptions of Phase I at Philae. (Plan by Canopé académie de Strasbourg, Marie-Georges Brun. Courtesy of Creative Commons. Adapted by author.)... 58 Figure 2: Photo by author. Charles Bonnet lecture at the 13th International Conference for Nubian Studies, 2014.

Figure 3: Aerial photo of Palace A, Doukki Gel. (Photo courtesy of Charles Bonnet.)............. 104 Figure 4: Reprinted from Gerhard Haeny, "A Short History Architechtural History of Philae" BIFAO 85 (1985): 221.

Figure 5: Wayekiye Family Tree. (Reprinted from Burkhardt, Ägypter und Meroiten, 96.)..... 119 Figure 6: Location of Phase II Nubian Graffiti. (Plan by Canopé académie de Strasbourg, Marie-Georges Brun. Courtesy of Creative Commons. Adapted by author.)

Figure 7: Location of Inscriptions on Second Pylon. (Reprinted from F. Ll. Griffith, Catalogue, vol. 1, 80.)

Figure 8: Location of Inscriptions in Stairwell of Second Pylon. (Reprinted from F. Ll. Griffith, Catalogue, vol. 1, 86.)

Figure 9: Plan of the Main Temple. (Reprinted from PM VI, 230.)

Figure 10: Plan of the South wall of the Pronaos. (Reprinted from Sylvie Cauville, Philae:

itinèraire du visiteur, 198.)

Figure 11: Location of Osirian themes in the Main Temple. (Reprinted from Sylvie Cauville, Philae: itineraire du visiteur, 201.)

Figure 12: Decoration of the Architraves in the Pronaos of the Main Temple. (Reprinted from Andreas Pries, Die Stundenwachen im Osiriskult, Part 2, 157.)





Figure 13: Western door from the Pronaos to the Gate of Hadrian. Photo by the author........... 178 Figure 14: Ptolemy VIII pours milk over an offering table before Osiris Wennefer and Isis. Photo by the author.

Figure 15: Ptolemy VIII offers milk to Horus of Kubban. Photo by the author.

Figure 16: Figural graffito from western exterior of Gate of Hadrian. Photo by the author...... 185 Figure 17: Figural graffito of Isis. Photo by the author.

Figure 18: Meroitic-language graffito (MI 119) of Meroitic king Yesbokheamani on south wall of Gate of Hadrian. Photo by the author.

Figure 19: Arqamani II at Dakka on the East wall, first register. (Reprinted from Güther Roeder, Der Tempel von Dakke, vol. 2 [l’Institut français d’archéologie orientale, 1930], 262, pl. 105.)

Figure 20: Esmet family of priests. (Reprinted from Burkhardt, Ägypter und Meroiten, 37.)... 210 Figure 21: Plan of Philae showing location of Phase III graffiti. (Plan by Canopé académie de Strasbourg, Marie-Georges Brun. Courtesy of Creative Commons. Adapted by author.). 212 Figure 22: Line drawing of Textual and Figural Graffiti from Exterior of the Second Eastern Colonnade at Philae. (Courtesy of Eugene Cruz-Uribe)

Figure 23: Plan of the graffiti on the Main Temple roof (Reprinted from Griffith, Catalogue, vol. 1, 101)

Figure 24: IGP 190-192 on exterior wall of the rooms behind the Second Eastern Colonnade at Philae. (Reprinted from Étienne Bernand, Les inscriptions grecque et latines de Philae, vol. 2, pl. 109).

Figure 25: Close-up of a hieracocephalos deity. Photo by author.

Figure 26: "Flower" figural graffiti. Photo by author.

–  –  –

Table 1: Phase I Inscriptions

Table 2a: Phase II Nubian Festivals

Table 2b: Phase II Nubian Festivals

Table 3: Meroitic Funerary Chapels - Libation Scenes.

Table 4: Phase III Inscriptions with Date Formula

Table 5: Feet Inscriptions at Philae

–  –  –

ANRW Aufstief und Niedergang der Römischen Welt, Berlin-New York.

Berlin Photo Berliner Photos der Preussischen Expedition 1908-1910 nach Nubien, Wiesbaden, 1975.

Republished in Horst Beinlich, Die Photos der Preussischen Expedition 1908-1910 nach Nubien, Dettelbach: J.H. Röll, 2010, 2013.

BIFAO Bulletin de l’Institut Français d’Archéologie Orientale, Le Caire.

EG Wolja Erichsen Demotisches Glossar, Copenhagen, 1954.

–  –  –

Ph. Philae graffito numbered according to Griffith, Catalogue of the Demotic Graffiti of the Dodecaschoenus, Cairo, 1912.

REM Répertoire d’épigraphie méroïtique, Paris.

SAOC Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization, Chicago.

ZÄS Zeitschrift für ägytpische Sprache und Altertumskunde, Leipzig-Berlin.

ZPE Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, Bonn.

Other Abbreviations Bar. Pyramid burial in the royal cemetery of Gebel Barkal (see Dunham 1957).

–  –  –

Beg. S Pyramid burial in the royal cemetery of Begarawiya North (see Dunham 1963).

Ku. Burial in the royal cemetery of el Kurru (see Dunham 1955).

Nu. Burial in the royal cemetery of Nuri (see Dunham 1955)

–  –  –

qoren/qeren Name of an office formed from the word qore (king), the Demotic transliteration – qrny - contained Gardiner’s sign Y3, the scribe’s palette.

See Hofmann 1981, 62, Torok 1979, 42ff.

–  –  –

ste “mother” See Inge Hofmann, Material für eine Meroitische Grammatik, 229-230; Nicholas Millett “The Meroitic Inscriptions from Gebel Adda” JJSEA 32 (2005): 12.

shashimete Ph. 55, Kalabsha 4. This title appears in several inscriptions from Meroitic Nubia and Meroe.

yetmede “kinship term - member of a clan (sub-tribal unit), perhaps in the maternal line.” See, Hinze, Merotische Verwandtschaftsbezeichnungen” in Steffen Wenig (ed.) Studien zum antiken Sudan. Akten der 7. Internationalen ix Tagung fuer meroitistische Forchungen 14-19 September 1992 in Goden/bei Berlin, Meroitica 15, Wiesbaden, p. 230-238. Claude Rilly, Le meroitique es sa famille linguistique (2010) 61 n. 66 “« Neveu/niece » au sens large, c’est-à-dire cadet/cadette dans la lignée maternelle.” Hintze, “Deskriptionssätze,” 8, #24 “eine besondere Art des abhängigkeitsverhältnisses zu bezeichnen scheint.” There is still considerable debate as to the meaning of this Meroitic term. I interpret yetmede as a kinship term that identifies an individual as part of a clan lineage descended from a common ancestor.

–  –  –

The expansion of the cult of Isis throughout the Mediterranean world demonstrates the widespread appeal of Egyptian religion in the Greco-Roman period.

Often Nubian involvement in the cult of Isis is excluded from studies of this religious phenomenon. When Nubians are acknowledged, they are presented simply as pilgrims.

However, inscriptions written in Demotic, Meroitic, and Greek reveal that Nubians served as financial supporters of the temple of Isis of Philae, where they led cult services as prophets and priests, and militarily defended the sanctity of Philae’s temple complex.

This dissertation examines the participation of Nubians in the cult of Isis of Philae through their prayer inscriptions and legal agreements engraved on temple walls at Philae, Dendur, Kalabsha, and Dakka during Egypt’s Roman and Byzantine period (1st-5th centuries AD). This study explores the political, economic, and social factors that allowed Nubians to become active in the Egyptian temples of Lower Nubia. Detailed analysis of Ptolemaic royal decrees and temple imagery explain the historical reasons for the involvement of Nubians in temple financial administration in the Dodecaschoenos.

Comparison of the religious rites described in Nubian prayer inscriptions and the temple relief scenes upon which they were engraved reveals a recurring Nubian cultic focus that exhibits many similarities to Meroitic royal funerary cult practices. This work collects all epigraphic evidence of Nubian worshippers in the temples of the Dodecaschoenos – inscriptions written in Demotic, Meroitic, and Greek - to present a comprehensive description of the enduring presence of Nubians in the cult of Isis of the Dodecaschoenos.

–  –  –

Inscriptions found on the walls of five temples in Lower Nubia attest to the involvement of Nubian priests, administrators, and diplomats in a region where many ethnicities intermingled during a time of profound religious, cultural, and social change as the ancient world was transformed. Engraved during the first five centuries AD, Nubian inscriptions in the Dodecaschoenos serve as a witness to a time of intense political, cultural, and social change in the region. Christianity was beginning its long ascendancy and Rome was at the height of its powers. With Egypt ruined financially as a colony of Rome and Christianity gaining converts in the Egyptian countryside in the third century AD, Egyptian temples were no longer used to celebrate the traditional pharaonic religion. Roman seizure of temple lands, restrictions placed on entry into the Egyptian priesthood and the benefits derived therefrom, and withdrawal of all state funding for Egyptian temples spelled the end of the practice of Egyptian temple religion. The one notable survival of an active temple cult was at Philae on the southern border of Egypt where diverse groups of Nubians2 continued to fund temple cult and practice the ancient A glossary of all Meroitic terms used in this dissertation and those Demotic words found only in Nubian inscriptions is found on page viii.

At our current state of knowledge, precisely defining the ethnicity of the diverse populations resident in Nubia from the first to the fifth century AD is difficult. Specific tribal names are not available to us because none of the various populations resident in Nubia practiced writing their indigenous languages. While some Nubians did engage in writing while serving in an Egyptian or Meroitic context, their texts, usually written in an official capacity, did not include biographical information such as tribal affiliation.



Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 42 |


Similar works:

«Know Thyself and Your Followers Leadership Advance Online– Issue XVII, Summer 2009 by J. Alan Marshall and Corné J. Bekker Whether credited to the Oracle of Delphi or to Greek philosophers such as Plato et al., the importance of knowing oneself has been emphasized over the ages (Classics, 2008). Mirvis (1982) applied this axiom to research endeavors by proposing that in order to have any hope of meaningful and ethical research, researchers must adhere to this admonition with the variation,...»

«Applications of Mass Spectrometric Assays for Analysis of Serum Protein N-glycosylation Associated with Pancreatic Cancer by Zhenxin Lin A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Chemistry) in The University of Michigan Doctoral Committee: Professor David M. Lubman, Chair Associate Professor Kristina Hakansson Professor Jairam Menon Professor Michael D. Morris     © Zhenxin Lin All Rights Reserved         DEDICATION To my...»

«The Philosophical Quarterly Vol. , No.  October  ISSN – doi: ./j.-...x Winner of The Philosophical Quarterly Essay Prize  A NEW DEFENCE OF ANSELMIAN THEISM B Y N Anselmian theists, for whom God is the being than which no greater can be thought, usually infer that he is an omniscient, omnipotent and omnibenevolent being. Critics have...»

«PATIENTS’ NARRATIVES OF OPEN-HEART SURGERY: EMPLOTTING THE TECHNOLOGICAL By Jennifer Lynne Lapum A thesis submitted in conformity with the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Graduate Department of Nursing University of Toronto © by Jennifer Lynne Lapum 2009 Patients’ Narratives of Open-heart Surgery: Emplotting the Technological Doctor of Philosophy Jennifer Lynne Lapum Graduate Department of Nursing University of Toronto ABSTRACT The steady increase of technology has...»

«A Web Experiment Based Enquiry into the Verbal Overshadowing Effect By Andrew Brand Thesis submitted to Cardiff University for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy, September, 2004 Contents Contents List of Tables List of Figures Acknowledgments Summary Chapter 1: Introduction to the Thesis Chapter 2: Introduction to the Verbal Overshadowing effect 2.1: What is the Verbal Overshadowing effect? 2.2: Factors which Moderate the VO effect 2.2.1: Target Factors 2.2.2: Temporal Factors 2.2.3:...»

«Munich Personal RePEc Archive The Doctrinal Peculiarity of 19th Century Adventism: Teaching About The Trinity Bernard Kozirog Online at http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/54382/ MPRA Paper No. 54382, posted 14. March 2014 15:46 UTC International Journal of Advanced Multidisciplinary Research and Review Volume 1, No.:1, 2013 Winter Pages: 32 49 The Doctrinal Peculiarity of 19th Century Adventism: Teaching About The Trinity Professor Bernard Kozirog, PhD1 This article presents an approach to the...»

«From Pariah to Parrhesiastes: Reconceptualising the Whistleblower in a Complex World by Julio Anthony Andrade Thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree Master of Philosophy (Applied Ethics) at the University of Stellenbosch Supervisor: Dr Minka Woermann Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences Department of Philosophy December 2011 Stellenbosch University http://scholar.sun.ac.za Declaration By submitting this thesis/dissertation electronically, I declare that the...»

«The Appropriated Racial Oppression Scale Development and Initial Validation Rebecca Rangel Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy under the Executive Committee of the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY © 2014 Rebecca Rangel All rights reserved ABSTRACT The Appropriated Racial Oppression Scale Development and Initial Validation Rebecca Rangel The present study examined appropriated racial oppression in a sample of 656...»

«en Oldies 21st Gold y Festival GOLDEN OLDIES RUGBY orld Reubgab n of Rugby built on W ng c le r tio A week lo ternity hip and Fra Fun, Friends MANUAL NAGER’S MA www.govsl.com GOLDEN OLDIES RUGBY Let the love of Rugby take you places Team Manager’s Handbook Contents GOLDEN OLDIES RUGBY Golden Oldies Philosophy 2 Previous Golden Oldies World Rugby Festivals 2 Golden Oldies Logos Usage 2 What To Expect 3 Duties Of A Team Manager 4 Team Member Questionnaire 5 Golden Oldies Rugby Playing Laws 6...»

«Art Song and Pedalling I love art song, and I've recently returned to practising art song accompaniment on the piano. It's been good for me; this way I get to restore some of my atrophied keyboard skills, and I get to practise music I like without the usual piano exercises or repertoire. Moreover, I get to rethink, reconsider, reaffirm my philosophy regarding piano playing — especially as it pertains to the accompaniment of song. I may not get to perform with a singer again in the near...»

«International Journal of Advanced Multidisciplinary Research and Review Volume 1, No.:1, 2013 Winter Pages: 32 49 The Doctrinal Peculiarity of 19th Century Adventism: Teaching About The Trinity Professor Bernard Kozirog, PhD1 This article presents an approach to the Seventh-day Adventist doctrine of the Trinity. In the Adventist‟s philosophy this view evolved from antitrinitarianism to trinitarianism. In the nineteenth century, Seventh-day Adventists modeled on other religious denominations,...»

«EXPLORING QOS AND SECURITY IN WIRELESS AD-HOC NETWORK A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF LE2I AND THE COMMITTEE ON GRADUATE STUDIES OF UNIVERSITE DE BOURGOGNE IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY SUN Donglai February 2013 Abstract Wireless Ad-hoc Network is an emerging communication technology over the last decade. As this kind of network can be easily implemented without requiring fixed infrastructures, it is considered as one of the...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2017 www.abstract.dislib.info - Abstracts, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.