«DEVELOPMENT OF MARINE RUSSIAN-NORWEGIAN TRADE FACILITIES IN NORTHERN NORWAY Prefeasibility study Akvaplan-niva AS Report: 4673-01 This page is ...»
authorities. In general, these ports do also have potential for further expansion and development. 116 3. Most of the northern hub ports operate without any particular limitations. Only Bodø has limitations on the largest vessels due to shallow entrance, but a deepening at two spots will take place during 2014-2019. 117 The port has good space, and there are plans for future expansion on Lille Hjertøya. The ports Kirkenes, Honningsvåg and Hammerfest have limited space, but Kirkenes is in process of expanding into Langfjorden and Hammerfest will have expanded the port by 2015. In Tronsø road connections to Breivika and the Tønsnes (future offshore and industry base, presently under construction) are considered as bottlenecks. 118 In November 2011, the government finally issued its visions and short-term actions regarding the High North as a Message to the Parliament. 119 It contained all key elements from the three previous documents, and continued having a focus on the development of maritime transport, maritime business development and infrastructure in the north. Several specific development projects are mentioned in the document, incl. the NEW-project in Narvik and the efforts by Port of Tromsø to position itself toward the offshore sector. It is therefore expected that these elements also will be included in the priorities of the upcoming NTP for 2014-2023.
On national level, there is a clear political focus on establishing suitable frame conditions and promotion maritime transport by strengthening the port infrastructure, the port operations and the connections between ports and other transport infrastructure in Norway. The general aim is both to meet the transport challenges related to the growth in import/export of goods and to meet the requirements within EU to reduce the Co2 emission by 40-50 % in a relatively short time perspective.
In North Norway this policy also has an additional dimension as both Norway, Russia and EU are developing their Arctic strategies based on the perspective of extensive future utilization of natural resources, climate change and development of the Northern Sea Route as a possible new corridor for international maritime transit transport between Asia and Europe as well as a corridor for transport of attractive natural resources from Arctic Russia to the Western markets.
An economic boost in the NW Russian regions based on these developments will furthermore create a good basis for a significant growth in cross-border business cooperation and trade High North.
These additional dimensions make ports and maritime infrastructure in Arctic Norway particularly important in a long-term national perspective.
So far, the port functions has been mostly considered in perspective of being capable of handling expected growth based on existing markets, existing market development and existing trade lanes. This includes the ports capabilities to handle and to prepare for increased production and handling of petroleum from Norwegian Arctic Shelf, even if future development of offshore production on western part of Russian Arctic Shelf also has been a part of the considerations.
Kystverket: Maritim infrastrukturrapport Svalbard, Finnmark, Troms og Nordland. – Mulige farleder for store skip (31 March 2011).
St.meld. nr. 16, 2008-2009, Nasjonal transportplan 2010-2019, p. 259.
Kystverket: Stamnettutredning 2011.
Meld. St. 7 (2011-2012) Nordområdene. Visjon og virkemidler.
Little attention has been paid to the possibilities that the cargo flow through north Norwegian ports in the future could grow significantly by getting a share of both the existing cargo flow from Russia to EU and the US markets and future cargo flows, which is likely to be both larger and being more diversified. An opening of the NSR for commercial international traffic during the summer months might also represent and opportunity for an active approach by ports and traders.
Nordland County's Development Program (to be revised) is having a priority on "problem areas and opportunities with port- and terminal operations and intermodality" as well as "solution models for cooperation/competition with port-/terminal operations and intermodal transports". 120
In Troms, the visions of the regional administration is based on a view that Arctic represents
opportunities and maritime sector represents the key:
To safeguard national interests and promote regional based value adding in the High North, it must be invested in national and international transport corridors. It is important to contribute to development and cooperation connected to transport- and logistic hubs in the High North. From old times there is a trading road stretching along the continental coast via the North Sea with legs east- and westwards and further along the Norwegian coast to Northwest-Russia. It is of great importance, also today, to develop the present sea based transport system for the same regions. Transport- and logistic structures in Europe and the Nordic countries are in process of development.
Important transport corridors are prioritized and the hubs are regionalized. For Troms it is also very important to secure the transport grids eastwards to Finland and East- and Central-Europe. All transport (road, sea, air and rail) must be seen in context. 121
In the Regional Development Plan for Finnmark County there is a general focus on the importance of viewing transport in context to increase the competitiveness of maritime transport, and to continue to develop the ongoing cooperation with Russia to solve common infrastructure challenges. 122 Nordland fylkeskommune: Utviklingsprogram Nordland 2008-2011, p. 19.
Troms fylkeskommune: Troms fylkesplan 2010-2013, s. 66.
Regional Utviklingsplan for Finnmark fylke, 2010-2013, s. 6 og s. 20. Planens politiske prioriteringer knyttet til nordområdesatsing (s.21) er basert på Regjerings nordområdestrategi og NTP 2010-2019., og en legger her til grunn at det må "/…/bevilges ekstraordinære statlige midler til utredninger og infrastrukturtiltak for å utvikle konkrete områder i Finnmark til en nasjonal næringsstrategisk plattform i nord."
Relevant Norwegian Ports, Plans and Capacities
The Norwegian port structure, which is based on parameters like cargo volume, capacity, connected infrastructure etc. is also defining a public port's national priority regarding investments. It is therefore natural to look at the "hub ports" within this structure when considering which north Norwegian ports could manage to host or develop to a maritime trading facility targeting export from Russia and in perspective transit cargo flow over the NSR.
These waters and ports have no depth limitation; have good maritime conditions and good regularity.
Narvik is mainly a loading port for export iron ore from Sweden. The volume of loaded dry bulk in 2010 was 17 033 013 tons – or 97 % of the total cargo flow.
Hammerfest has been developed as a main supply base for the petroleum activities on the Norwegian shelf of the Barents Sea. Statoil's Snøvit LNG factory is also located here. In 2010 about 50 % of the port's cargo flow was loaded liquid bulk. 125 In Kirkenes, the large increase in cargo flow is a result of the reopening of the Sydvaranger iron mines in 2008.
Mulighetsstudie for Kirkenes Havn, p. 31.
Maritim infrastrukturrapport Svalbard, Finnmark, Troms og Nordland, s. 5., Stamnettutredning 2011, s. 78 og SSBs Havnestatistikk.
SSB Havnestatistikk, tabell 439.
Mo i Rana Mo i Rana is the industrial hub of north Norway with one of the country's largest industrial park.
Mo i Rana is connected both to the European road grid through E6 through Norway and E12 to Sweden. It is also connected to the national railroad grid.
There is a STOLport with 799 m runway located at Røssvoll, 10 km NE of the town. It is planned to close it down to build a new and larger airport at Hauan, a few km further to the east.
Bodø is Norway's largest intermodal hub on transfer of containers between ships and railroad, and it is without comparison north Norway's largest container port. This is because Bodø effectively is prolonging the Norwegian railroad grid (Nordlandsbanen) by ship within the region, and to the large northern regions Troms and Finnmark. 127 Port of Bodø presently has 1 460 meters of public quays. The railroad terminal, the port terminal, the ferry terminal, cargo truck terminal, cold store, store hotel and other storehouses are all located within a 500 meter radius.
The port is also facilitating a process of developing an updated municipal strategy for industry, oil and gas. 129 Port of Bodø is a part of an alliance with Port of Hammerfest and Port of Kirkenes to be in better position to benefit from maritime traffic connected to future petroleum activities and Northwest Russia. 130
Bodø is connected to the European road grid by Rv 80, connecting with E6 at Finneid, There is also a connection with the European grid in Sweden from E6 to Rv 77 at Storjord.
Bodø is also connected to the national railroad grid as the northern end, and a large hub airport with 2794 meter runway is located only 3 km south of the center of the town.
Narvik is an important loading port for iron ore from Sweden and a distribution center for goods between South- and North Norway. The town is connected to the European railroad grid via Sweden (no connection to the national grid). In 2008 this railroad distributed 50.000 TEU from Oslo to Narvik, but the present terminal has capacity to double that number. 131 Measured by handled volume, Narvik is without comparison the largest port in North Norway.
Though, nearly all is outbound dry bulk (iron ore) for the export market. There are nearly no container traffic over the port. 132 There is an initiative to develop Narvik as a cargo hub for containers from USA to Central Asia, the NEW-project. Here, goods should arrive to Narvik by ship over the Atlantic and be distributed further by train, using the Swedish, Finish and Russian railroad grid. This initiative has been supported by the International Union of Railways (UIC) and is included in the national transport plan 2010-2019. 133 There are 13 quays in and around Port of Narvik. Most of them are not suitable for handling larger vessels due to shallow water.
Port of Narvik is aiming to secure and develop the position as logistic hub on the North Calotte.
The strategy to reach that goal includes:
1. Development of container terminal and to establish Narvik as a hub for container transport
2. Strengthening of the efforts within port related business development Port of Bodø KF, Strategic Plan, 29 January 2009.
Port Director Ingvar M. Mathisen, 26 October 2011.
NTP 2014-2023 Effektive godsknutepunkter, p. 87 SSB Havnestatistikk 2010.
NTP 2010-2019, p. 132.
3. Acquiring more land for future infrastructure, quays and port related business development. 134
Besides the railroad connection via Sweden, Narvik is linked to the European road grid by E6 to the south and E10 to Sweden. There is a STOLport with 799 m runway located 2 km from the center of the town, and the regional Narvik/Harstad hub airport Evenes, with 2808 meter runway, is located 79 km north of the town.
Harstad Port of Harstad is a multipurpose port with increasing importance as center for service and supplies for offshore petroleum activities in the region with ambitions to be a hub for petroleum activities in the northern Norwegian Sea..
The cargo volume handled by the port is relatively low; only Honningsvåg has less volume among the North Norwegian hub ports, and Harstad had a 13% decrease in 2010 compared with 2004. 136
Narvik Havn KF: Strategiplan 2009-2015 (vedtatt i havnestyret 18. februar 2009), s. 6-7..
Havnedirektør Rune Johan Arnøy, 17 November 2011.
SSB Havnestatistikk 2010, tab. 439.
At Stangnes Syd (SST 1-3) the weight limit is 140 t/m. The quays are connected to areas with good space for short term or long term storage of all kinds of cargos/goods.
Kai I-IV have only max carrying weight 1,5 t/m, Rødskjær max 3 t/m and Larsenet, termimal 1 max 4 t/m. 137
Harstad is connected to the European road grid by E10. The regional Narvik/Harstad hub airport Evenes, with 2808 meter runway, is located 45 km from the town. There is no railroad connection.
Tromsø Port of Tromsø is the largest and best equipped port in North-Norway. It has port areas in the center of the town (passenger traffic, fishing and leisure), at Breivika port and industrial area, 3 km north of the center, and at Tønsnes port and industrial area at Grøtsund, 10 km north of Tromsø town (under construction as port for oil & gas related activities). 138 Tromsø has a developed infrastructure, and the port areas have good locations for outwards/inwards hinterland transport.
Breivika port terminal is the most central container and general cargo terminal in Tromsø, but the road access is considered as unsatisfactory and a barrier for further development of the port.
A better road connection is estimated to cost NOK 300 million. Tønsnes port and industrial area will also need an improved road connection. 139 Port of Tromsø is having national status as "particularly designated port" as the only in NorthNorway.
Max capacity is depending on vessels draft/quay side bollards. The largest ships are at quay 21example RMS "Queen Mary 2" (148 528 BRT) in June, 2010.
Informasjon mottatt fra Harstad havn, 15 November 2011.
www.tromso.havn Kystverket: Stamnettutredning 2011, p. 77.
Port of Tromsø, 29 November 2011.