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In 2007, the commission issued "An integrated Maritime Policy for the European Union" 72 where it highlighted reduction of CO2 emissions and pollution by shipping among the 10 most important projects included in the action plan accompanying the document. The document also paid attention to the geopolitical implications of climate change, and the Commission announced in this context that it would present a report on strategic issues relating to the Arctic Ocean in 2008. 73 In 2008, the EU commission issued "The European Union and the Arctic Region" 74, which for the first time drew an EU focus on sustainable petroleum development and maritime transport in the Arctic areas of Norway and Russia by proposing to work /…/to strengthen the foundation for long-term cooperation, particularly with Norway and the Russian Federation, facilitating the sustainable and environmentally friendly exploration, extraction and transportation of Arctic hydrocarbon resources. 75 In 2009, the 2985th Foreign Affairs Council meeting in Brussels concluded that an EU policy on Arctic issues should be based on several issues, including /…/the need for responsible, sustainable and cautious action in view of new possibilities for transport, natural resource extraction and other entrepreneurial activities linked to melting sea ice and other climate change effects.
COM(2001) 370 final, issued 12 September 2001.
COM(2007) 575 final, Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, The European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions, issued 10 October 2007.
Ibid, p. 13.
COM(2008) 763 final, Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council, issued 21 November 2008. The document was approved by the Council of the European Union on 8 December 2008.
Ibid, page 9.
"Council conclusions on Arctic issues", press release from Council of the European Union.
Furthermore, the resolution requested the Commission to develop the existing Inter-Service Group into a permanent inter-service structure to ensure a coherent, coordinated and integrated policy approach across quay policy area relevant to the Arctic, such as the environment, energy, transport and fisheries. 77 Through the recent 10 years, EU has shown an increased interest in the High North and Arctic, but even if natural resources, industrial development and logistics is included in the ongoing policy making for this region, environmental issues are still dominating the union's approach.
EU's transport policies are still not having any significant High North focus; neither the 2009 "Strategic goals and recommendations for the EU's maritime transport policy until 2018" 78, nor the 2009 "Progress report on the EU's integrated maritime policy" 79, are dealing with shipping and maritime logistics in Arctic.
The 2011 white paper "Roadmap to a Single European Transport Area – Towards a competitive and resource efficient transport system" 80 is lacking an Arctic transport focus, but has a focus on both reduced CO2 emissions which is also highly relevant for the development of maritime
transport in Arctic:
The environmental record of shipping can and must be improved by both technology and better fuels and operations: overall, the EU CO2 emissions from maritime transport should be cut by 40 % (if feasible 50 %) by 2050 compared with 2005 levels. 81 Even if the commission chose not to deal with maritime transport in Arctic as a part of the roadmap, the accompanying commission staff working document 82 is having an important
remark which makes the development in Arctic highly relevant for EU:
By 2050, the entry points into European markets will multiply. Certain ports will develop or become major intercontinental hubs along the northern and southern coastlines, avoiding at the same time unnecessary traffic crossing Europe. A possible melting of the sea-ice in parts of the Arctic Sea may open new and shorter shipping routes to the Pacific.
As a consequence, Arctic ports in Norway and possibly Russia may become new gateways into continental Europe. 83 EU is in process of making a more detailed strategy for High North 84, but even if Arctic transport and logistics yet has not been on the top of the agenda with the policy makers, there is a growing acknowledgment that the future development of this region is not only an environmental issue, but will have other impacts as well.
2009/2214(INI), points 10, 13, 28 and 56.
COM(2009) 8 final, issued 21 January 2009.
COM(2009) 540 final, issued 15 October 2009.
COM(2011) 144 final, issued 28 March 2011.
Ibid, p. 8.
SEC(2011) 391 final, issued 28 March 2011.
Ibid, page 31. Comment No 105, chapter 2.5. "A global level-playing field for intercontinental freight".
Oddgeir Danielsen, Director of NDPTL, 25 October 2011.
Northern Dimension As a consequence of EU's increasing focus on the significance of new transport corridors being developed in Arctic, the union created the Northern Dimension Partnership on Transport and Logistics (NDPTL) in 2009 under the 2006 Northern Dimension (ND) partnership with Russia, Norway and Iceland. The goal is to improve the major transport connections and logistics in the Northern Dimension region to stimulate sustainable economic growth at the local, regional and global levels by focusing on a limited number of priorities that reflects both regional and national priorities. NDTPL became operational with an office in Helsinki from March 2011. 85 Finland Sea transport accounts for about 80 % of Finland's export and import. The Baltic Sea route is the main connection between Finland and mainland EU, and the route also carries significant and increasing volumes of transit cargo to Russia via Finland.
Finland's maritime focus is therefore naturally on the Baltic Sea and short sea shipping (SSS).
In 2010 Finland issued its own Arctic strategy 86. The document contains no strategies for maritime transport towards Arctic and NSR. The strategy's commercial perspectives are related to modernization and development of the NSR infrastructure and the possible development of the transport networks of Northern Finland (railroad, roads, airports) to be connected with the deep sea ports in Arctic Norway and Russia. 87 Nordic Investment Bank, press release: Northern Dimension partnership; from concept to reality, September 2011.
Nordim: "Preparing the Northern Dimension Partnership on Transport and Logistics" (final report updated June 2011).
"Finland's Strategy for the Arctic Region" (Prime Minister's Office Publications 8/2010).
Ibid., pp. 26-29.
Russia Federal Transport Strategy In 2008, the Russian Government adopted the "Transport Strategy of the Russian Federation for the period to 2030", elaborated and proposed by the Ministry of Transport.
Figure 1: Transport infrastructure of Russia in 2010-2030 by the Transport Strategy 2030 (Source:
Ministry of Transport of Russia).
In the Transport Strategy – 2030, the Ministry of Transport gave three scenarios of the Russian transport system development: inertial, energy-resource, and innovation ones.
All three ways of the Russia’s transport system development include:
• implementation of large transport projects ensuring resources development and hydrocarbon extraction in new production regions, like oil in Eastern Siberia and gas on the Arctic Shelf; and construction of trunk pipelines;
• transport infrastructure development for realization of transit potential of economics;
• reconstruction and building up transport infrastructure securing transportation safety, modernization of transport means;
• development of export infrastructure with focus on sea ports.
The energy-resource scenario of the transport system development also adds on among other
• diversification of export routes for Russian hydrocarbon deliveries;
• increase of deliveries of processed goods, including oil products;
• establishment of specialized sea ports with logistic hubs.
The Ministry of Transport prioritized the third, innovation way of the Russian transport systems
development that in addition to above mentioned elements includes:
• increase of high technological products exports;
increased role of transport-and-logistic infrastructure in goods transportation;
development of large transport-and-logistic and production junctions in Northwest •
According to the innovation scenario of the Transport Strategy – 2030, the volume of annual cargo turnover in the Russian seaports should reach the level of 1025 million tons in 2030, versus 526 million tons in 2010. 89 Structure of freight turnover in Russian Western Arctic ports In 2010, registered freight turnover of the seaports of the Kara, Pechora, White and Barents seas was 50.5 million tons, including 31.8 million tons of liquid cargoes and 18.7 million tons of dry cargoes (Note: crude oil from Varandey was handled and counted three times – shipped at Varandey in the Pechora Sea, and transshipped in Murmansk in the Barents Sea).
Table 1: Dynamics of freight turnover in the seaports of the Kara, Pechora, White and Barents seas from 2003 to 2011, in thousand tons. 90
Bambulyak, A. and Frantzen, B. (2011) Oil transport from the Russian part of the Barents region. The Norwegian Barents Secretariat and Akvaplan-niva report (pp. 29-30).
See previous footnote (pp. 36-37).
ESIMO – www.esimo.ru See previous footnote.
Murmansk is the largest seaport and export harbor in the Russian North. In the recent years, it had annual freight turnover growth from 15 million tons in 2003 (handled by 5 stevedore companies) to 35 million tons in 2009 (13 stevedore companies).
The freight turnover of the Murmansk seaport had most significant increase in 2004, when FSO Belokamenka in the Kola Bay was put in operation, and in 2009, when new Varandey terminal sent 7.5 million tons of crude oil to FSO Belokamenka (see table 3). 92 Table 3: Annual freight turnover in the Murmansk seaport by all port companiesstevedores in 2003-2010, in thousand tones. 93
Coal and crude oil give most volumes in freight turnover of the Murmansk seaport. In 2010, Murmansk Trade port shipped 9.6 million tons of coal – 29% of freight turnover, and FSO Belokamenka transshipped 7.5 million tons of crude oil from Varandey (received from shuttle tankers and offloaded to line tankers) that gave 15 million tons or 46% in freight turnover.
Other main cargoes were petroleum products – 2.5 million tons or 8%, and mineral fertilizers –
2.4 million tons or 7% of Murmansk freight turnover in 2010 (see table 4).
Types of cargo: 1 – ore, 2 – coal, 3 – mineral fertilizers, 4 – other dry cargoes; 5 – ferrous metals, 6 – nonTotal: 1522 9641 2354 127 92 343 157 292 92 553 15112 2525 ferrous metals, 7 – scrap metal, 8 – refrigerated cargo (fish and seafood), 9 – other general cargo; 10 – cargo in containers; 11 – crude oil, 12 – petroleum products.
Export cargo from the Russian Barents Region ports Sea ports and terminals of the Barents, White and Pechora seas, shipped 29.7 million tons of cargo for export in 2010. Liquid hydrocarbons (crude oil, gas condensate, refined products) shared 53% of exported cargo; coal – 36%; mineral fertilizers – 5%; ore and metals – 4%; timber and processed wood – 2% (see figure 2).
Legend: 1 – ore; 2 – coal; 3 – mineral fertilizers; 4 – timber; 5 – ferrous metals; 6 – non-ferrous metals; 7 – Figure 3. Spatial distribution of export cargoes shipped in the Russian northern ports.
scrap-metal; 8 – other general cargoes; 9 – oil shipped for export; 10 – export oil sent for transshipment;
11 – gas condensate; 12 –petroleum products; 520 – chart size scale of 520 thousand tons of cargo.
(Note: export crude oil offloaded in Varandey was transshipped in the Kola Bay at FSO Belokamenka) Coal export Coal export volumes via the Russian northern ports (Murmansk, Kandalaksha, Arkhangelsk) were on the level of 11-14 million tons annually in 2009-2011 (see table below).
The Murmansk trade seaport receives 90% of coal from Kemerovo region (about 70% delivered by SUEK), the rest comes from Novorossiysk region, Republics of Khakasia and Buryatia, and Kozlova, O. and Grigoriev, M. (2011) Evaluation of prospects for cargo flows via ports of the Barents and the White seas. Gecon report.
from Irkutsk region. Coal is exported to Great Britain (60%), Spain and Belgium, with single shipments to Switzerland, Germany and Norway. 96 The Kandalaksha trade seaport in the White Sea receives coal by railway from the Kemerovo region with 2/3 of deliveries by TALTEK JSC. Coal is from Kandalaksha to the Great Britain and the Netherlands.