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«Journal of Phonetics (2002) 30, 139–162 doi:10.1006/jpho.2002.0176 Available online at on The phonetics of phonological ...»

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These findings support the claims of a growing number of researchers that transcription is inadequate for complete error coding, as transcription makes incorrect assumptions about the wholly categorical and abstract nature of the data (Laver, 1980; Boucher, 1994; Ferber 1995). Transcription techniques are susceptible to perceptual bias, and so can be expected to be effective only when bias is 160 S. A. Frisch and R. Wright minimized. Thus, data from experimentally elicited errors that are recorded and can be examined repeatedly are much more reliable than naturally occurring errors that are transcribed opportunistically while the ‘‘experimenter’’ is engaged in conversation or otherwise not completely focused on the transcription task. But even careful listening techniques will still be influenced by listener bias, and gradient errors are likely to be missed. In our own perception of the tokens in our corpus, there was a heavy perceptual bias to detect errors in /s/ production and not errors in /z/ production. The acoustically determined error pattern suggests that there were in fact more /z/ errors than /s/ errors.

The categorical tendencies in the acoustics of the productions in our corpus provide evidence that gestures tend to be organized into permissible segments. This tendency interacted with the lexical status of the outcome, suggesting that gestures tend to be organized into permissible words. Extending the tendency to produce phonetically normal segments and words to the more general case can explain the traditional claim that errors result in grammatical sequences of segments. Errors tend to result in grammatical sequences. Stemberger’s (1983) very carefully collected corpus of naturally occurring errors supports the claim that grammaticality is a tendency, but not an absolute. He found some perceptually detectable but phonotactically anomalous productions in naturally occurring dialogue. The agreement between our analysis and Stemberger’s corpus also suggests that our conclusions are not specific to tongue twisters, and that they apply to speech production in general.

Overall, our findings are incompatible with models of speech production that involve selecting, organizing, and ordering abstract discrete representational units into a frame that is then implemented by the phonetic module (e.g., the scan-copier model of Shattuck-Hufnagel, 1979). The interaction between the articulatory details of speech production and organization at the lexical and segmental levels suggests that there is a hierarchically organized and interactive production mechanism that manipulates phonetic units directly. Appropriate models that use discrete linguistic levels and spreading activation (Dell, 1986) or less explicitly organized connectionist architecture (Dell, Juliano & Govindjee, 1993) have previously been proposed as models of phonological encoding that sometimes generate speech errors at the level of words and segments. These models are compatible with our findings if they are extended to include competition at the level the articulatory plans of segments. We conclude from this that the phonetics of phonological speech errors is an important topic for future research in speech production.

Parts of this research were presented at the 133rd and 134th meetings of the Acoustical Society of America, the 72nd annual meeting of the Linguistic Society of America, and the University of Illinois at Urbana/Champaign. We would like to thank those audiences for their questions and suggestions. We would also like to thank Dani Byrd, Terry Nearey, and two anonymous reviewers for helpful comments on an earlier draft of this paper This work supported in part by NIH Training Grant DC 00012 to Indiana University and by the Language Learning Research Assistant Professorship at the University of Michigan.

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Baars, B., Motley, M. & MacKay, D. (1975) Output editing for lexical status from artificially elicited slips of the tongue, Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 14, 382–391.

The phonetics of phonological speech errors Baum, S. & Blumstein, S. (1987) Preliminary observations on the use of duration as a cue to syllableinitial fricative consonant voicing in English, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 82, 1073–1077.

Boucher, V. (1994) Alphabet-related biases in psycholinguistic enquiries: considerations for direct theories of speech production and perception, Journal of Phonetics, 22, 1–18.

Byrd, D. (1996) A phase window framework for articulatory timing, Phonology, 13, 139–169.

Cole, R. (1973) Listening for mispronunciations: a measure of what we hear during speech, Perception & Psychophysics, 13, 153–156.

Cole, R. & Cooper, W. (1975) The perception of voicing in English affricates and fricatives, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 58, 1280–1287.

Dell, G. (1986) A spreading activation theory of retrieval in sentence production, Psychological Review, 93, 283–321.

Dell, G., Juliano, C. & Govindjee, A. (1993) Structure and content in language production: a theory of frame constraints in phonological speech errors, Cognitive Science, 17, 149–195.

Dell, G. & Reich, P. (1980) Toward a unified theory of slips of the tongue. In Errors in linguistic performance: slips of the tongue, ear, pen, and hand (V. Fromkin, editor), New York: Academic Press.





pp. 273–286.

Ferber, R. (1995) The reliability and validity of slip-of-the-tongue corpora: a methodological note, Linguistics, 33, 1169–1190.

Frisch, S. (1996) Similarity and frequency in phonology. Unpublished PhD dissertation, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL.

Fromkin, V. (1971) The non-anomalous nature of anomalous utterances, Language, 47(1), 27–52.

Garnham, A., Shillcock, R. C., Brown, G. D. A., Mill, A. I. D. & Cutler, A. (1982) Slips of the tongue in the London-Lund corpus of spontaneous conversation, Linguistics, 19, 805–817.

Haggard, M. (1978) The devoicing of voiced fricatives, Journal of Phonetics, 6, 95–102.

Klatt, D. (1976) Linguistic uses of segmental duration in English: acoustic and perceptual evidence, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 59, 1208–1221.

Laver, J. (1980) Slips of the tongue as neuromuscular evidence for a model of speech production.

In Temporal variables in speech (H. Dechert & M. Raupach, editors), The Hague: Mouton.

pp. 21–26.

Levelt, W. (1989) Speaking: from intention to articulation. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Liberman, A. (1997) Speech: a special code. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Marslen-Wilson, W. & Welsh, A. (1978) Processing interactions and lexical access during word recognition in continuous speech, Cognitive Psychology, 10, 29–63.

Mowrey, R. & MacKay, I. (1990) Phonological primitives: electro-myographic speech error evidence, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 88(3), 1299–1312.

Motley, M. & Baars, B. (1975) Encoding sensitivities to phonological markedness and transition probability: evidence from spoonerisms, Human Communication Research, 2, 351–361.

Ohala, J. J. (1983) The origin of sound patterns in vocal tract constraints. In The production of speech (P. F. MacNeilage editor), New York: Springer-Verlag. pp. 189–216.

Pirello, K., Blumstein, S. E. & Kurowski, K. (1997) The characteristics of voicing in syllable-initial fricatives in American English, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 101, 3754–3765.

Pickett, J. (1980) The sounds of speech communication. Baltimore, MD: University Park Press.

Pouplier, M., Chen, L., Goldstein, L. & Byrd, D. (1999) Kinematic evidence for the existence of gradient speech errors, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 106, 2242.

Saltzman, E. L. & Munhall, K. G. (1989) A dynamical approach to gestural patterning in speech production, Ecological Psychology, 1, 333–382.

Samuel, A. G. (1981) Phonemic restoration: insights from a new methodology, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 110, 474–494.

Shadle, C. (1985) The acoustics of fricative consonants. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Shattuck, S. (1975) Speech errors and sentence production. Unpublished PhD dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Shattuck-Hufnagel, S. (1979) Speech errors as evidence for a serial-ordering mechanism in sentence production. In Sentence processing: Psycholinguistic studies presented to Merrill Garrett (W. E. Cooper & E. C. T. Walker, editors), Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. pp. 295–342.

Shattuck-Hufnagel, S. (1983) Sublexical units and suprasegmental structure in speech production planning.

In The production of speech (P. F. MacNeilage, editor) New York: Springer-Verlag. pp. 109–136.

Shattuck-Hufnagel, S. (1992) The role of word structure in segmental serial ordering, Cognition, 42, 213–259.

Smith, C. L. (1997) The devoicing of /z/ in American English: effects of local and prosodic context, Journal of Phonetics, 25, 471–500.

Stemberger, J. P. (1983) Speech errors and theoretical phonology: a review. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Linguistics Club.

162 S. A. Frisch and R. Wright Stemberger, J. P. (1991) Apparent anti-frequency effects in language production: the addition bias and phonological underspecification, Journal of Memory and Language, 20, 161–185.

Strevens, P. (1960) Spectra of fricative noise in human speech, Language and Speech, 3, 32–49.

Warren, R. M. (1970) Perceptual restoration of missing speech sounds, Science, 176, 392–393.

Wells, R. (1951) Predicting slips of the tongue, Yale Scientific Magazine, December, 9–12.

Wickelgren, W. (1965) Distinctive features and errors in short-term memory for English vowels, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 38, 583–588.

Wright, R., Frisch, S. & Pisoni, D. B. (1999) Speech perception. In Encyclopedia of electrical and

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