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«City and County of San Francisco Office of the Controller – City Services Auditor ASSESSMENT COUNTY JAIL NEEDS Hall of Justice Replacement Jail ...»

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City and County of San Francisco

Office of the Controller – City Services Auditor

ASSESSMENT

COUNTY JAIL NEEDS

Hall of Justice Replacement Jail

August 15, 2013

CONTROLLER’S OFFICE

CITY SERVICES AUDITOR

The City Services Auditor was created within the Controller’s Office through an amendment to the City Charter that was approved by voters in November 2003. Under Appendix F to the City Charter, the City

Services Auditor has broad authority for:

Reporting on the level and effectiveness of San Francisco’s public services and benchmarking the city to other public agencies and jurisdictions.

Conducting financial and performance audits of city departments, contractors, and functions to assess efficiency and effectiveness of processes and services.

Operating a whistleblower hotline and website and investigating reports of waste, fraud, and abuse of city resources.

Ensuring the financial integrity and improving the overall performance and efficiency of city government.

The audits unit conducts financial audits, attestation engagements, and performance audits. Financial audits address the financial integrity of both city departments and contractors and provide reasonable assurance about whether financial statements are presented fairly in all material aspects in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles. Attestation engagements examine, review, or perform procedures on a broad range of subjects such as internal controls; compliance with requirements of specified laws, regulations, rules, contracts, or grants; and the reliability of performance measures.

Performance audits focus primarily on assessment of city services and processes, providing recommendations to improve department operations.

We conduct our audits in accordance with the Government Auditing Standards published by the U.S.

Government Accountability Office (GAO). These standards require:

Independence of audit staff and the audit organization.

Objectivity of the auditors performing the work.

Competent staff, including continuing professional education.

Quality control procedures to provide reasonable assurance of compliance with the auditing standards.

Project Team: Peg Stevenson, Director Kyle Patterson, Project Manager Wylie Timmerman, Performance Analyst Jennifer Tsuda, Performance Analyst Table of Contents Table of Contents

Executive Summary

Key Findings

Background

Overview of the Jail System

Visual Supervision

Elements of the System

County Jail #1

County Jail #2

County Jail #3

County Jail #4

County Jail #5

County Jail #6

Alternatives to Incarceration

Inmate Classification System

Adequacy of Jail Staffing

Seismic Safety of the Hall of Justice

Jail Population Study

Current Inmate Population

Inmate Demographics

Emerging Special Populations

Trends Related to the San Francisco Jail Population

Crime Trends in San Francisco

Demographic Trends in San Francisco

Forecast of the Jail Population

Elements of the Jail Forecast

Baseline Forecast

Impact of Realignment

Peaking Factor

Classification Factor

Forecast Results

Operational and Design Philosophy

Mission and Core Values

San Francisco’s Jail Design Philosophy

Weaknesses in County Jails #3 and #4

Replacement Jail Facility Needs

Location of the Hall of Justice Replacement Jail

Considerations for Future Use of County Jail #6

Program Needs

Overview

Current Programs

Alternatives to Incarceration

In-Custody Programs

Community Programs

Replacement Jail Program Needs

Lack of Program Space

Inadequacy of Existing Spaces

Gaps in Program Offerings and Management

Standards Compliance

Record Keeping

APPENDIX A: Summary of Seismic Evaluation

APPENDIX B: Jail Bed Needs by Classification and Gender

APPENDIX C: Weekly Hours of Programming Offered by Jail and Pod

Executive Summary The San Francisco Sheriff’s Department (“Sheriff’s Department”) manages six jails in San Francisco and San Mateo County. Two of the jails, County Jail #3 and County Jail #4, are located in the Hall of Justice alongside the Superior Court, Police Headquarters, the District Attorney’s Office, and other City agencies. Opened in 1961, the Hall of Justice has since been found to be susceptible to severe structural damage in the event of an earthquake. The City and County of San Francisco (“City”) has determined that these inadequacies cannot be remedied outside of a significant capital improvement effort. In addition, the antiquated design and space constraints of County Jail #3 and County Jail #4 create safety concerns and limit the Sheriff’s Department’s ability to offer in-custody programs to inmates. As a result, the City plans to replace County Jails #3 and #4 with a new facility (“Replacement Jail”).

As part of the planning process for the Replacement Jail, the Sheriff’s Department and the Jail Planning Working Group asked the San Francisco Controller’s Office to complete a needs assessment of facility characteristics that would best meet incarceration needs. For this analysis, the Controller’s Office interviewed 25 key stakeholders, reviewed documentation provided by the Sheriff’s Department, and analyzed data on demographic and criminal justice trends in the San Francisco jail population and the City and County of San Francisco. This report forecasts future jail bed needs, discusses salient jail design features, and documents elements of the jail system such as current facilities, program offerings, and characteristics of the inmate population.





Key Findings The Controller’s Office forecasts the need for a 481-688 bed Replacement Jail in 2019. The projection is based on forecasts by two external consultants and internal data on the impacts of state realignment.

A podular jail design similar to County Jail #5 has many advantages over the current linear design of County Jails #3 and #4 including improved visual supervision, increased program space, and shared areas connected to the pods (e.g. exercise area, day room, exam area, etc.) to minimize the need for inmate escort throughout the jail.

The Sheriff’s Department offers robust offender programming throughout the jail system, including the newly opened re-entry pod which provides intensive services to state realignment inmates. The Sheriff’s Department plans to continue the use of programs in the Replacement Jail, and therefore, the new jail will need to be constructed with more space than is currently available in County Jails #3 and #4. The Sheriff’s Department should continue to increase outcome measurement and strategic planning for its system of programs.

The design of County Jails #3 and #4 does not allow special populations such as gang dropouts and civil commitments to be housed efficiently. For example, “Sexually Violent Predators” (SVP) are civil commitments that must be housed separately from the general population. On January 29, 2013, four SVPs were housed in a 28-bed unit, leaving 24 empty beds that could only be occupied by other SVPs. The Sheriff’s Department should consider jail design strategies that will mitigate these issues and increase housing flexibility.

Background The San Francisco Sheriff’s Department (“Sheriff’s Department”) manages six jails in San Francisco and San Mateo County. Two of the jails, County Jail #3 and County Jail #4, are Type II1 facilities located in the Hall of Justice alongside the Superior Court, Police Headquarters, the District Attorney’s Office, and other City agencies. Opened in 1961, the Hall of Justice has since been found to be susceptible to severe structural damage in the event of an earthquake.

The City and County of San Francisco (“City”) has determined that these inadequacies cannot be remedied outside of a significant capital improvement effort. In addition, the antiquated design and space constraints of County Jail #3 and County Jail #4 create safety concerns and limit the Sheriff’s Department’s ability to offer in-custody programs to inmates. As a result, the City plans to replace County Jails #3 and #4. The Hall of Justice Replacement Jail (“Replacement Jail”) has been part of the City and County of San Francisco’s 10 Year Capital Plan since the beginning of the Capital Planning Program in FY2006-2007.

The City has determined that the Replacement Jail facility should be constructed adjacent to existing Superior Court facilities at the Hall of Justice for safety, security and cost reasons. This would allow inmates in the Replacement Jail to be transported to court appearances in a timely fashion through secure elevators and corridors. The Sheriff’s Department found in a 2011 estimate that the Department would need to spend at least $6 million in one-time costs and more than $11 million in ongoing annual costs to transport inmates to court if the Hall of Justice Replacement Jail was constructed near other San Francisco county jails in San Mateo County, California.

As part of the planning process for the Replacement Jail, the Sheriff’s Department and the Jail Planning Working Group asked the San Francisco Controller’s Office to complete a needs assessment of facility characteristics that would best meet incarceration needs. For this analysis, the Controller’s Office interviewed 25 stakeholders including, but not limited to, representatives from the Sheriff’s Department, the Superior Court of California, Adult Probation, Jail Health Services, and Five Keys Charter School. The Controller’s Office also reviewed documentation provided by the Sheriff’s Department and other stakeholders, and analyzed data on demographic and criminal justice trends in the San Francisco jail population and the City and County of San Francisco. This report documents elements of the jail system including current facilities, programs, classification system, staffing, and inmate population, as well as needs for a Replacement Jail.

Title 15 of the California Code of Regulations defines a Type II jail facility as “a local detention facility used for the detention of persons pending arraignment, during trial, and upon a sentence of commitment.” Type I facilities can only detain individuals for up to 96 hours, and Type III facilities can only detain “convicted and sentenced persons.” Overview of the Jail System The San Francisco Sheriff’s Department operates six county jails with a total of 2,515 rated and unrated2 beds. Four of the jails are located in or adjacent to the San Francisco Hall of Justice, while two more are located in San Mateo County near San Bruno, California. Currently, County Jail #6 and a portion of County Jail #3 are closed because the total jail population is below the system capacity.

Visual Supervision The Sheriff’s Department has three direct supervision jails with either a podular3 or dormitory design (County Jails #2, #5, and #6). In these facilities, deputies are able to maintain visual supervision of inmates at all times. Two County Jails (#3 and #4) are constructed in a linear design characterized by tanks4 or dormitories on either side of a central aisle known as the “main line.” These are known as intermittent surveillance facilities because Deputies patrolling the main line do not have a direct line of sight to all inmates at all times. Visual supervision would be improved if County Jails #3 and #4 were replaced with a direct supervision jail. See the Operational and Design Philosophy section of this report for a discussion of jail designs.

Elements of the System The following is a more detailed profile of each jail and an overview of programs that divert offenders from jail.

County Jail #1 Location: Adjacent to the Hall of Justice Year Opened: 1994 Facility Type: Type I Number of Beds: As an intake and release facility, it has no inmate housing. However, it has a holding capacity of 298.

Description: County Jail #1 is the location where all persons are booked into and released from San Francisco county jails. No individuals are housed at County Jail #1. Arrested persons are only held at the jail for the period of time it takes to complete the booking and release process.

County Jail #2 Location: Adjacent to the Hall of Justice Year Opened: 1994 Facility Type: Type II Title 15 of the California Code of Regulations defines rated beds as those that “[conform] to the standards and requirements” of the State. Unrated beds are those that are used for health care or disciplinary isolation, or do not conform to state standards.

In a facility with pod architecture, a semi-circle of housing units surrounds a shared day area and a central deputy station. In the San Francisco jail system, the housing units are typically double cells. See Exhibit 16 on page 27 for a photo comparison of linear and pod jail designs.

A group of cells or small dormitories connected to a shared space.

Number of Beds: 466 (392 rated) Description: County Jail #2 is a “new generation” facility which utilizes podular architecture for the inmate housing areas. Although County Jail #2 holds both men and women, it is the sole location for housing female inmates.

County Jail #3 Location: 6th floor of the Hall of Justice Year Opened: 1961 Facility Type: Type II Number of Beds: 466 (426 rated) Description: County Jail #3 is a linear facility and, along with County Jail #4, is the oldest San Francisco jail.

County Jail #4 Location: 7th floor of the Hall of Justice Year Opened: 1961 Facility Type: Type II Number of Beds: 439 (402 rated) Description: County Jail #4 is a linear facility and, along with County Jail #3, is the oldest San Francisco jail. It is the Sheriff’s Department’s primary facility for housing maximum-security inmates who are considered the most disruptive, violent, and problematic.

County Jail #5 Location: San Mateo County, CA Year Opened: 2006 Facility Type: Type II Number of Beds: 772 (768 rated) Description: County Jail #5 utilizes podular architecture, and is the newest and largest of the San Francisco County Jails. Although located in San Mateo County, the jail is the jurisdiction of the City and County of San Francisco. Most of the 16 pods are dedicated to offender programming.



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