«Lists of figures, plans, tables and appendices ii Glossary vii Executive Summary viii 1 Introduction 1 2 Undertaking the Study 9 3 Strategic Context ...»
• there are sufficient swimming pools to meet current and future demand in quantitative terms. Pools are ageing, but replacement facilities should be carefully considered given the current supply
• the supply of sports halls is insufficient to meet current and future demands
• provision of indoor tennis facilities are above the national and regional average, but access to households from the East of the city is poor
• provision of indoor bowls facilities are considerably below the national and regional average but did not raise significant concerns during the needs assessment
• gym stations are well provided but there is some indication that residents would like to see additional council run facilities of high quality
Chapter 11 - Cemeteries, Churchyards and Green Corridors Introduction and definition
11.1 Churchyards are normally confined within an existing church boundary and cemeteries are found outside the confines of a church. This study includes both local authority owned, and privately owned burial land as well as any disused churchyards. Although the primary purpose of this type of open space is for the burial of the dead and quiet contemplation, these sites can also have considerable value for the promotion of wildlife conservation and biodiversity. Some cemeteries, for example, St Mark’s Churchyard and Harehills Cemetery, are designated as Leeds Nature Areas.
11.2 Green corridors link urban areas with the surrounding countryside and often follow roads, waterways or disused railway lines. By linking areas with the countryside and the public right of way network they promote environmental sustainable modes of transport, such as walking, cycling and house riding, and support healthy living.
11.3 Parks and Green Space Strategy (2009) The Parks and Green Space Strategy identifies that Leeds City Council
manages 75 cemeteries and churchyards within the Leeds district including:
• 21 Cemeteries, covering 82 hectares • 3 Crematoria, covering 15 hectares • 51 Disused churchyards covering 18 hectares
11.4 The strategy also suggests that disused churchyards, depending on the level of maintenance, can also function as natural green space promoting wildlife conservation and enhancement.
11.7 Over a quarter of all cemeteries and churchyards are located in the North West Outer area, which has 43.76 hectares, the highest amount in any area for burial land. However, approximately half of this area total is from one site;
Lawnswood Cemetery/Crematorium which measures 31.59 hectares. The East Inner area also has a similar uneven split, with one site, Harehills Cemetery, out of the three, covering 61% of the area of burial land within the area. Despite this, the East Inner and the North East Inner areas have the lowest number of sites (3). The North East Inner area has the smallest area of churchyards within the district. While the average size of a cemetery or churchyard is 5.92 hectares, over 90% of sites are less than 5 hectares.
11.8 The largest amount of green corridor green space is in the South Outer area, with 24 sites covering 95.1 hectares, over 25% of the current provision. The outer areas provide 97 sites and 72% of the area of green corridors.
11.9 The provision of cemeteries and churchyards is relatively evenly distributed across the rural part of the district, however, within the urban area, the West of Leeds has a higher concentration of cemeteries and churchyards. The larger green corridors which can be identified on the map follow roads, railways and rivers, providing green routes out of the urban area.
11.10 The award is assessed in two key ways, firstly by reviewing a site management plan, and secondly a field assessment based primarily on observation during a site visit. Each category is given a score out of 10, with a maximum of 30 points for the desk assessment and 70 points for the field assessment. To achieve the standard a minimum of 15 on the desk assessment and 42 on the field assessment is needed, however, an award can only be given if the overall score is greater than 65. The desk assessment is not carried out as most sites do not have a management plan.
Thus, only the field based assessment is conducted, and as alluded to above, the score required to reach the standard is in effect 48. On average, each category must therefore achieve 7 out of 10 to reach the standard, although there is no minimum score for each category.
11.11 The results revealed an average score of 5.92 out of 10 for all cemetery and churchyard sites and 5.37 out of 10 for green corridors.
Table 11.2 Quality of Cemeteries and Churchyards in Leeds by Analysis Area
11.12 Cemeteries and churchyard sites were deemed to be good overall, Outer West area had the widest range of scores. The lowest quality score was 1.92 at St John’s Churchyard in the South Inner area and the highest was Farnley Cemetery with 8.15 in the West Outer area. St John’s Churchyard is programmed for improvement works which will complete in 2011. The West Outer area attained the highest average score of 7.02.
Table 11.3 Quality of Green Corridors in Leeds by Analysis Area
11.13 As shown in the table above, the quality for the district was found to be average to good, with an average score of 5.37. The lowest quality score was
1.3 at the green corridor between Amberly Road and Oldfield and the highest average was Pog Farm with 7.76.
11.14 Over half of the on-street respondents to the survey would expect to drive to a cemetery or churchyard by car, however, 60% of household survey respondents would expect to walk. Most people expect to travel 10 minutes by car or 15 minutes on foot.
11.15 The majority of people surveyed would expect to walk 10 minutes to a green corridor.
Proposed Cemetery, Churchyard and Green Corridor Standards
11.16 No standard has been set regarding the quantity, quality or accessibility for
churchyards, cemeteries and green corridors as Planning Policy Guidance 17:
Planning for Open Space, Sport and Recreation does not require one.
However, the results from the needs assessment suggest a general satisfaction in the current provision, quality and accessibility.
Chapter 12 City Centre Open Space Introduction and definition
12.1 The focus of this chapter is the availability and sufficiency of open space within the city centre. This includes the spaces discussed by the other typology chapters, with the addition of civic space.
12.2 There are various definitions of open space in urban centres. Planning Policy
Guidance 17 provides the following definition of civic space:
“civic spaces, including civic and market squares, and other hard surfaced areas designed for pedestrians. The purpose of civic spaces, mainly in town and city centres, is to provide a setting for civic buildings, such as town halls, and opportunities for open air markets, demonstrations and civic events.”
12.3 The Unitary Development Plan Review (2006) provides a broader definition which incorporates all the typologies, stating that “the public spaces of the City Centre comprise parks, hard and soft landscaped areas and incidental spaces, together with streets, arcades, alleys, yards, malls and squares, to which the public has access (but not necessarily public ownership or public right of way). They provide the setting for a rich architectural backcloth, corridors for people to move around in the Centre with ease, in safety, and above all to enjoy it.” Although a more modern definition could also include the useful contribution that green space can make to urban cooling and combating the effects of climate change in major urban areas.
12.4 The existing UDPR (2006) city centre boundary, designated under policy CC2, has been used to define the spatial extent of the city centre for the purposes of this chapter.
12.5 A resident population in the city centre has emerged over a relatively short period. In 1996 there were only 3,700 people estimated to live in the city centre, but by 2008 the estimate was 15,700 people. The population of the city centre could double up to 2026 and this growth needs to be accompanied by an increase in accessible open space provision.
12.6 A city centre visioning conference in 2009, concluded that one of the three priorities to improve the city centre was provision of a city centre park.
12.7 There are no definitive national or local standards for civic spaces. However, the city centre chapter of the UDPR (2006) includes policies CC9 to CC13 which seek to protect, enhance and provide additional public space within the city centre.
12.8 The existing UDPR (2006) green space policies have never been applied to new development within the city centre boundary due to the large requirement generated by the high density residential developments.
12.9 Not all open space typologies and facilities are appropriate for a city centre location. For example, it would be unrealistic to expect outdoor sports sites and some of their facilities; grass playing pitches, athletic tracks and golf courses within the city centre.
Consultation - Assessing Local Needs
12.10 Survey respondents 1 were asked to provide their opinion regarding the quantity and quality of open space, sport and recreation provision in Leeds
City Centre. The results reveal:
• 41% of household and 31% of the on-street respondents felt there was not enough provision • 43% of the on-street respondents thought the amount was about right, however, only 22% of household respondents held this view
12.11 The majority of household survey respondents consider that there is not enough open space in the city centre. Although a large proportion of on-street respondents also consider existing provision was inadequate, the majority thought provision was about right. Residents comments highlighted a need
for greater provision of:
• ‘Green’ areas
• Facilities for children and young children
• Indoor sport provision
12.12 These views were also reflected in the responses residents gave regarding what additional provision they would like to see in the city centre. 41% of respondents to both surveys chose parks and gardens as their preferred additional type of provision. The most common responses in order of
• Parks and gardens
• Facilities for young people/teenagers
• Play areas for children The surveys conducted for the PPG17 Needs Assessment were directed at residents across Leeds MD not just those who live in the city centre.
12.13 In addition to the opinion on overall city centre open space provision, the surveys also questioned respondents perception of civic space provision.
These results are included in this chapter as the majority of civic space in the district, is concentrated in the city centre. The results highlighted the
12.14 The overall conclusion from these results, is the quantity of civic space is generally perceived to be adequate, however, there is concern that there is not enough open space or green space within the city centre.
12.15 Other city centre resident surveys have been undertaken in recent years. The University of Leeds City Living in Leeds (2005) concluded that the biggest single factor that might influence a decision to move away from the city centre was the lack of green spaces. When asked what would encourage respondents to reside longer in the city centre the second most popular response was better provision of green spaces. The most popular response was better/more food shops.
12.16 The Leeds City Centre Audit (2007) noted that 51% of people it surveyed thought the city centre did not have enough public open spaces. Residents and workers are more likely (56% and 52% respectively) than visitors (31%) to respond on the lack of open space. These surveys indicate that city centre residents and employees are more concerned, than Leeds residents as a whole, over the provision of city centre open space.
Current Provision Quantity
12.17 There are 37 civic space sites identified in Leeds City Centre. The below table illustrates the overall provision of open space of all types within the city centre.
Table 12.1 Open Space in Leeds City Centre
12.18 The study identified 50 open space sites in the city centre. Throughout the consultation, the aesthetic importance of open spaces in the city centre is highlighted and they are regularly used by visitors and residents. They are particularly busy at lunch time, on warmer days, when it can be difficult to find a space to sit at the more popular well known sites. These spaces function as meeting places, provide a release from the stress of work and for city centre residents, represent their only easily accessible open space.
12.19 Plan 12.1 shows the locations of the various open space sites. The majority of the provision is located within the Leeds University campus. These sites alone account for 4.5 hectares of civic space and the Leeds General Cemetery is 3.7 hectares. This represents 29% of the total available open space in the city centre.
Table 12.2 City Centre Population, Workers and Visitor Statistics
12.20 The amount of available open space identified in table 12.1 above, and on plan 12.1 is 6.3% of the total area of Leeds City Centre, using the UDPR (2006) policy C2 city centre boundary (462 hectares).
Source: City Centre Audit, 2008 Source: City Centre Audit, 2008
12.21 In the last decade, the city centre has undergone a revival in residential popularity. The city centre has again become a popular location in which to live. The population has increased four fold in only 12 years from 3,700 in 1996 to 15,700 people in 2008.