«NOS. 14-556, 14-562, 14-571, 14-574 IN THE Supreme Court of the United States JAMES OBERGEFELL, ET AL., Petitioners, v. RICHARD HODGES, DIRECTOR, ...»
NOS. 14-556, 14-562, 14-571, 14-574
Supreme Court of the United States
JAMES OBERGEFELL, ET AL., Petitioners,
RICHARD HODGES, DIRECTOR, OHIO
DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, ET AL., Respondents.
[Additional Case Captions Listed on Inside Front Cover]
On Writs of Certiorari to the United States
Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit
BRIEF OF AMICI CURIAE SCHOLARS OF
THE WELFARE OF WOMEN, CHILDREN,
AND UNDERPRIVILEGED POPULATIONS
IN SUPPORT OF RESPONDENTS________________________________
LYNNE MARIE KOHM JOHN C. EASTMANc/o Regent University Counsel of Record School of Law ANTHONY T. CASO 1000 Regent Univ. Dr. CENTER FOR CONSTITUVirginia Beach, VA 23464 TIONAL JURISPRUDENCE c/o Chapman University Fowler School of Law One University Drive Orange, CA 92866 (714) 628-2587 firstname.lastname@example.org Counsel for Amici Curiae ______________________________________
VALERIA TANCO, ET AL., Petitioners, v.
BILL HASLAM, GOVERNOR OF TENNESSEE, ET AL.,Respondents.
APRIL DEBOER, ET AL., Petitioners, v.
RICK SNYDER, GOVERNOR OF MICHIGAN, ET AL.,Respondents.
GREGORY BOURKE, ET AL., Petitioners, v.
STEVE BESHEAR, GOVERNOR OF KENTUCKY, ET AL.,Respondents.
1. Does the Fourteenth Amendment require a state to redefine marriage and issue marriage licenses to two people of the same sex, contrary to the express, recently reaffirmed vote of the people of the state?
2. Does the Fourteenth Amendment require a state to recognize a marriage between two people of the same sex performed out of state, when doing so is contrary to the state’s own fundamental policy decision?
TABLE OF CONTENTSQUESTIONS PRESENTED
TABLE OF AUTHORITIES
INTEREST OF AMICI CURIAE
SUMMARY OF ARGUMENT
I. The Institution of Marriage Guides and Channels Human Behavior, and Especially Benefits Women in Disadvantaged Communities and their Children.............. 4 II. Past Well-Intentioned Changes to Marriage Law and Policy Have Harmed Women and Children in Disadvantaged Communities.
III. Redefining Marriage To Encompass SameSex Relationships Will Likely Harm Women and Children, Particularly Those in Disadvantaged Communities.............. 13 A. Redefining Marriage Transforms Its Public Meaning
C. Redefining Marriage Risks Several Specific Anticipated Harms to Women and Children in Disadvantaged Communities.
Cases Cramblett v. Midwest Sperm Bank, LLC, No. 2014-L-010159 (Ill. Cir. Ct., Cook County, filed Sept. 29, 2014)
DeBoer v. Snyder, 772 F.3d 388 (6th Cir. 2014)
Ex parte State ex rel. Alabama Policy Inst., No. 1140460, 2015 WL 892752 (Ala. Mar. 3, 2015)
Goodridge v. Dep’t of Pub. Health, 798 N.E.2d 941 (Mass. 2003)
United States v. Windsor, 133 S. Ct. 2675 (2013)
Williams v. North Carolina, 317 U.S. 287 (1942)
Other Authorities Akerlof, George A., Men without Children, 108 THE ECONOMIC JOURNAL 287 (1998)............. 24 Allen, Douglas W., An Economic Assessment of Same-Sex Marriage Laws, 29 HARV. J.L. & PUB.
POL’Y 949 (2006)
Allen, Douglas W., and Gallagher, Maggie, Does Divorce Law Affect the Divorce Rate? A Review of Empirical Research, 1995-2006, Institute for Marriage and Public Policy Research Brief 1 (Jul. 2007)
v Alvaré, Helen M., Same Sex Marriage and the “Reconceiving” of Children, 64 Case Western L.
Rev. 829 (2014)
Alvaré, Helen M., The Turn Toward the Self in the Law of Marriage & Family: Same-Sex Marriage & Its Predecessors, 16 Stan. L. & Pol’y Rev. 135 (2005)
Amato, Paul R., The Impact of Family Formation Change on the Cognitive, Social, and Emotional Well-Being of the Next Generation, 15 FUTURE OF CHILDREN 75 (Fall 2005)
Amato, Paula, M.D., et al., Ethics Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine, Consideration of the Gestational Carrier: a committee opinion, 99 FERTILITY AND STERILITY 1838 (June 2013)
Avellar, Sarah, & Smock, Pamela J., The Economic Consequences of the Dissolution of Cohabiting Unions, 67 J. MARRIAGE & FAM. 315 (2005)........ 29 Bakalar, Nicholas, Education, Faith, and a Likelihood to Wed, New York Times Science Times D7 (Mar. 23, 2010)
Berger, Amanda, et al., Relationship Violence Among Young Adult Couples, Child Trends Research Brief 1 (June 2012)
Berger, Peter L., and Luckmann, Thomas, THE
SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF REALITY: A TREATISEIN THE SOCIOLOGY OF KNOWLEDGE (1966).......... 4, 9 Brown, Susan L., The Effect of Union Type on Psychological Well-being: Depression Among vi Cohabitors Versus Marrieds, 41 JOURNAL OF HEALTH AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOR 241 (2000).......... 27 Browning, Don, & Marquardt, Elizabeth, What About the Children? Liberal Cautions on Same-Sex Marriage, in THE MEANING OF MARRIAGE 29 (Robert P. George & Jean Bethke Elshtain eds., 2006)
Bumpass, Larry, and Lu, Hsien-Hen, Trends in Cohabitation and Implications for Children’s Family Contexts in the United States, 54 POPULATION STUDIES 29 (2000)
Carroll, Jason S., & Dollahite, David C., “Who’s My Daddy?” How the Legalization of Same-Sex Partnerships Would Further the Rise of Ambiguous Fatherhood in America, in WHAT’S THE HARM?
DOES LEGALIZING SAME-SEX MARRIAGE REALLY
HARM INDIVIDUALS, FAMILIES OR SOCIETY 47(Lynn D. Wardle ed., 2008)
Cherlin, Andrew J., THE MARRIAGE-GO-ROUND: THE
STATE OF MARRIAGE AND THE FAMILY IN AMERICATODAY (2009)
Cook, Michael, The Link Between Rented Wombs and Gay Marriage, Mercatornet (July 19, 2012)........ 33 Davis, Erica, The Rise of Gestational Surrogacy and the Pressing Need for International Regulation, 21 MINN. J. INT’L L. 120 (2012)
Davis, Kingsley, Introduction: The Meaning and Significance of Marriage in Contemporary Society,
in CONTEMPORARY MARRIAGE: COMPARATIVE
PERSPECTIVES ON A CHANGING INSTITUTION 1(Kingsley Davis ed., 1985)
vii DeSerres, Louis, Preserve Marriage—Protect Children’s Rights (Canada), in WHAT’S THE HARM?
DOES LEGALIZING SAME-SEX MARRIAGE REALLY
HARM INDIVIDUALS, FAMILIES OR SOCIETY(Lynn D. Wardle ed., 2008)
Doherty, William J., et al., Responsible Fathering, 60 J. MARRIAGE & FAM. 277 (1998).......... 20, 22, 32 Edin, Kathryn, & Kefalas, Maria, PROMISES I CAN
KEEP: WHY POOR WOMEN PUT MOTHERHOODBEFORE MARRIAGE (2005)
Eskridge, William N., Jr., GAYLAW: CHALLENGING APARTHEID IN THE CLOSET (1999)
Eyal, Hedva, Genewatch: Reproductive Trafficking, Council for Responsible Genetics
Flouri, Eirini, & Buchanan, Ann, The Role of Father Involvement in Children’s Later Mental Health, 26 J. ADOLESCENCE 63 (2003)
Franke-Ruta, Garance, Remapping the Culture Debate, AMERICAN PROSPECT (Feb. 2006)............ 18 Fulcher, Fulcher, et al., Contact with Grandparents among Children conceived via donor insemination by Lesbian and Heterosexual mothers, 2 PARENTING: SCIENCE AND PRACTICE, 61 (2002).... 15 George, Robert P., et al., WHAT IS MARRIAGE?
Glendon, Mary Ann, ABORTION AND DIVORCE IN WESTERN LAW 106 (1987)
Goode, William J., WORLD CHANGES IN DIVORCE PATTERNS (1993)
Haskings, Ron, and Sawhill, Elizabeth, CREATING AN OPPORTUNITY SOCIETY (2009)
Hope, S., Rodgers, B., and Power, C., Marital Status
Transitions and Psychological Distress:
Longitudinal Evidence from a National Population Sample, 29 PSYCHOLOGICAL MEDICINE 381 (Mar. 1999)
Kenney, Catherine T., & McLanahan, Sara S., Why Are Cohabiting Relationships More Violent Than Marriages, 43 DEMOGRAPHY 127 (Feb. 2006)...... 27 Killewald, Alexandra, A Reconsideration of the Fatherhood Premium: Marriage, Coresidence, Biology, and Fathers’ Wages, 78 AM. SOC. REV.
Kohm, Lynn Marie, and Groen, Karen M., Cohabitation and the Future of Marriage, 17 REGENT U. LAW REV. 261 (2005)
Kurtz, Stanley, Going Dutch?, Weekly Standard (May 31, 2004)
Lavelle, Bridget, & Smock, Pamela J., Divorce and Women’s Risk of Health Insurance Loss, 53
JOURNAL OF HEALTH AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOR 413(2012)
Lerman, Robert I., & Wilcox, W. Bradford, For Richer, For Poorer: How Family Structures Economic Success in America (Institute for Family Studies 2014)
Lichter, Daniel T.. et al., Is Marriage a Panacea?
Union Formation Among Economically Disadvantaged Unwed Mothers, 50 SOCIAL PROBLEMS 60 (Feb. 2003)
ix Light, Audrey, Gender Differences in the Marriage and Cohabitation Income Premium, 41 DEMOGRAPHY 263 (May 2004)
London, Catherine, Advancing a Surrogate-Focused Model of Gestational Surrogacy Contracts, 18 CARDOZO J.L. & GENDER 391 (2012)
Lorenz, Frederick O., et al., The Short-Term and Decade-Long Effects of Divorce on Women’s Midlife Health, 47 JOURNAL OF HEALTH AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOR 111 (June 2006)
Lynne Marie Kohm, What’s the Harm to Women and Children? A Prospective Analysis, in WHAT’S THE
HARM? DOES LEGALIZING SAME-SEX MARRIAGE
REALLY HARM INDIVIDUALS, FAMILIES OR SOCIETY79 (Lynn D. Wardle ed., 2008)..............6, 24, 28, 32 Marguardt, Elizabeth, et al., My Daddy’s Name is Donor, Institute for American Values (2010)...... 35 Martin, Paige D., et al., Adolescent Premarital Sexual Activity, Cohabitation, and Attitudes Toward Marriage, 36 ADOLESCENCE 601 (2001). 29 Martin, Steven P., Trends in Marital Dissolution by Women’s Education in the United States, 15 DEMOGRAPHIC RESEARCH 537 (2006)
McDermott, Rose, et al., Breaking Up Is Hard to Do, Unless Everyone Else Is Doing It Too: Social Network Effects on Divorce in a Longitudinal Sample, 92 SOCIAL FORCES 491 (Oct. 18, 2009)... 30 McLanahan, Sara, & Sandefur, Gary, GROWING UP
WITH A SINGLE PARENT: WHAT HURTS, WHATHELPS (1994)
x McLanahan, Sara, Diverging Destinies: How Children are Faring Under the Second Demographic Transition, 41 DEMOGRAPHY 607 (2004)
Mendle, Jane, et al., Associations Between Father Absence and Age of First Sexual Intercourse, 80 CHILD DEV. 1463 (2009)
Miller, Cheryl, Babies for Sale, The New Atlantis (Summer 2006)
Nee, Victor, & Ingram, Paul, Embeddedness and Beyond: Institutions, Exchange, and Social Structure, in THE NEW INSTITUTIONALISM IN SOCIOLOGY 19 (Mary C. Brinton & Victor Nee eds., 1998)
Newman, Alana S. Testimony in Opposition to AB460, To the California Assembly Committee on Health (April, 30 2013)
Newman, Alana S., Children’s Rights, or Rights to Children?, Public Discourse (November 10, 2014)
Nock, Steven L., MARRIAGE IN MEN’S LIVES (1998)
Nock, Steven L., The Consequences of Premarital Fatherhood, 63 AM. SOC. REV. 250 (1998)
North, Douglass C., Institutions, 5 J. OF ECON.
PERSPECTIVES 97 (Winter 1991)
Obama, Barack, Obama’s Speech on Fatherhood (June 15, 2008), http://www.realclearpolitics.com/articles/2008/06/o bamas_speech_on_fatherhood.html
Parkman, Allen M., Good Intentions Gone Awry:
No-Fault Divorce and the American Family (2000)
Popenoe, David, LIFE WITHOUT FATHER (1996)...... 23 Radcliffe-Browne, A. R., STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION IN PRIMITIVE SOCIETY (1952)
Rax, Joseph, ETHICS IN THE PUBLIC DOMAIN (1994)
Rhoads, Steven, TAKING SEX DIFFERENCES SERIOUSLY (1994)
Sants, H. J., Genealogical bewilderment in children with substitute parents, 37 BRIT. J. MED. PSYCHOL.
Shanley, Mary Lyndon, Surrogate Mothering and Women’s Freedom: A Critique of Contracts for
Human Reproduction, in EXPECTING TROUBLE:
SURROGACY, FETAL ABUSE, AND NEWREPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGIES 156 (1995)........... 36 Smock, Pamela J., et al., The Effect of Marriage and Divorce on Women’s Economic Well-Being, 64 AM.
SOC. REV. 794 (1999)
Sowell, Thomas, Gays Are Not “Entitled” to Marriage, The Virginian-Pilot, at B9 (Aug. 21, 2006)
Spaht, Katherine Shaw, For the Sake of the Children: Recapturing the Meaning of Marriage, 73 NOTRE DAME L. REV. 1547 (1998)
Stevenson, Betsey, & Wolfer, Justin, Bargaining in the Shadow of the Law: Divorce Law and Family Distress, 121 Q. J. ECON. 267 (2006)
xii Sweeney, Megan M., & Horwitz, Allan V., Infidelity,
Initiation, and the Emotional Climate of Divorce:
Are There Implications for Mental Health?, 42
JOURNAL OF HEALTH AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOR 295(2001)
Teitler, Julien O., et al., Effects of Welfare Participation on Marriage, 71 J. MARRIAGE & FAM. 878 (2009)
Thomas, Adam, & Sawhill, Isabel, For Love and Money? The Impact of Family Structure on Family Income, 15 THE FUTURE OF CHILDREN 57 (Fall 2005)
Wax, Amy L., Diverging Family Structure and “Rational” Behavior: The Decline in Marriage as a Disorder of Choice, in RESEARCH HANDBOOK ON THE ECONOMICS OF FAMILY LAW 15 (Lloyd R.
Cohen & Joshua D. Wright eds., 2011)......... passim
Whitehead, Barbara Dafoe, THE DIVORCE CULTURE:
RETHINKING OUR COMMITMENTS TO MARRIAGEAND FAMILY (1996)
Wilcox, W. Bradford, and Dew, Jeffrey, Is Love a Flimsy Foundation? Soulmate versus institutional models of marriage, 39 SOC. SCI. RESEARCH 687 (2010)
Wilcox, W. Bradford, et al., The Marginalization of Marriage in Middle America, Brookings Institute (Aug. 10, 2011), available at http://brookings.edu/~/media/research/files/papers/ 2011/8/10%20strengthen%20marriage%20wilcox% 20cherlin/0810_strengthen_marriage_wilcox_cherl in.pdf
xiii Williams, Camille S., Women, Equality, and the Federal Marriage Amendment, 20 BYU J. PUB. L. 487 (2006)