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Effects of Chemical Treatments on the Level of Wilting According to variance analysis table 1-4, the applied chemical treatments have significantly affected the prevention of wilting at the significance level of 0.01. Results of this research indicated that the wilting level of treated fruits with all three compounds was significantly less than control fruits. According to yielded information, there were no significant differences between compounds on the seventh day of testing. This was while, on the fourteenth day, the treatments of calcium in all three concentrations showed the least wilting level.
20 17.67 16.5 15 12.66 11.91 11.33 11 9.75 9.45 8.7 Figure 5: Effects of chemical compounds on wilting level of Cammarosa strawberry Put1: 1MM Putrescine, put2: 2MM Putrescine, CaCl2 25: 25MM Chloride Calcium, CaCl2 50: 50MM Chloride Calcium, CaCl2 75: 75MM Chloride Calcium, NO3: 3MM Nitric Oxide, NO5: 5MM Nitric Oxide,COMP1: 1MM Putrescine + 50MM Chloride Calcium + 3MM Nitric Oxide, COMP2: 2MM Putrescine + 75MM Chloride Calcium + 5MM Nitric Oxide, COMP3: 1MM Putrescine + 25MM Chloride Calcium + 3MM Nitric Oxide, Control: Control treatment The yielded results indicated that as the level of absorption of calcium in the fruit is increased, the level of wilting is decreased. The Poly-Galactase enzyme leads to decomposition of all pectin compounds inside the fruit except for the cell wall and as a result provides a site for fungal contamination therefore, treatment with chloride calcium in addition to strengthening the membranes of the fruit, also prevents fungal deterioration.
Through firming the cell wall, calcium leads to increased strength against enzymes produced by fungi.
Also, calcium increases the level of Oxalate and soluble pectin (Gupta et al., 1980).
During the past 20 to 25 years, researchers have found out that increase in fruit's calcium level in addition to increasing the firmness of the membrane, causes a decrease in the level of wilting. In a test, Delicious apples were treated by 8% calcium solution via stressed penetration method and were kept in storage for three months. Afterwards, fruits were inseminated with blue mold after storage period and the signs of wilting in calcium treated plants were recorded as being approximately 40% less than control group fruits.
After 5 months of storage there was no difference between treated fruits and control group fruits (Convey, 1983).
Results of research conducted by Marconi et al., (2002) on strawberries and cherries comply with the findings of this research. Investigating the level of contamination of tomato showed that the low © Copyright 2015 | Centre for Info Bio Technology (CIBTech) 34 Cibtech Journal of Zoology ISSN: 2319–3883 (Online) An Open Access, Online International Journal Available at http://www.cibtech.org/cjz.htm 2015 Vol. 4 (1) January-April, pp.26-36/Amini and Habibi Research Article concentration of calcium in raw extracts was accompanied with higher level of contamination. Also in storage, the suitability of resistance against physiological and fungal diseases is related to fruit's deterioration (Malakooti, 2000). On the other hand, it's been reported that plant's sensitivity against contamination by pathogenic elements is in a converse relation with the calcium levels of plant's membranes (Malakooti, 2000; Hagh, 1993). Chang et al., (1993) sprayed the solution of calcium chloride in concentrations of 0.3 and 0.9 percent two weeks before harvesting and observed the significant effects of these treatments on reducing the level of fruit's deterioration. On the other hand, the durability of Scoya strawberries was increased from 3 days to 16 days without any type of contamination (Desuza et al., 1999). According to the theory of Convey and Sam (1987) the present calcium in the cell wall highly protects the plant from microbes which try to enter the fruit via breaking the pectin. Some performed studies on different varieties such as apples, pears and pineapples revealed that also Peroxidases might be related to enzyme induced browning. Although, the quality of these effects is not clear but this issue, as it was declared by Pouya (1988) and Pikchioni et al., (1995), could be a result of the fact that calcium helps the stability of the membranes. Nitric Oxide stimulates the defensive responses of host membrane and might also have a direct impact on growth of pathogens or even indirectly increase the resistance of host against the pathogen (Quadir and Hashinga, 2001). Different evidence has indicated that Nitric Oxide synthesizes as a result of pathogens invasion by Nitric oxide and could corporate with H2O2 for the purpose of establishing defensive reactions (Neil et al., 2003). It's also been reported that Nitric Oxide plays a role in development of systematic acquired resistance (Dornier et al., 1998) and probably there is a signaling relation among H2O2, NO and Salicylic Acid during ultra-sensitive reactions and systematic acquired resistance (Romero et al., 2003). Leshm and Pinchasso (2000) conducted a research and showed that application of Nitric Oxide leads to an increases storability and decreased deterioration. Production of Nitric Oxide has a converse relation with production of Ethylene in fruit's maturity and ripening stages.
Leshm et al., (2000) reported that strawberry's storability was increased by Nitric Oxide vapor. Yang and Hoffmann (1984) reported that surface of ACC are the restrictor factors in ethylene's production cycle.
Results of this research are in compliance with the findings of other researchers in this context.
© Copyright 2015 | Centre for Info Bio Technology (CIBTech) 35 Cibtech Journal of Zoology ISSN: 2319–3883 (Online) An Open Access, Online International Journal Available at http://www.cibtech.org/cjz.htm 2015 Vol. 4 (1) January-April, pp.26-36/Amini and Habibi Research Article REFERENCES Abdullahi RV, Asqry MV and Ismaili M (2011). Effect of Nitric Oxide and Pvtrysyn On Qualitative Properties Of Postharvest Strawberry Fruit Selva. Journal of Food 3(1) 177-190.
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