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Cibtech Journal of Zoology ISSN: 2319–3883 (Online)
An Open Access, Online International Journal Available at http://www.cibtech.org/cjz.htm
2015 Vol. 4 (1) January-April, pp.26-36/Amini and Habibi
EFFECTS OF PUTRESCENCE, NITRIC OXIDE AND CHLORIDE
CALCIUM ON QUALITY ATTRIBUTES OF STRAWBERRY
(FRAGARIA ANANASSA DUCH.CV.،CAMMAROSA,)
Hoshyar Mohammad Amini and *Nader Habibi
Department of Food Science and Technology, Sanandaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj, Iran * Author for Correspondence ABSTRACT Because of the harmful effects of the chemicals on human health and environment, the use of these compounds is recently restricted and it is necessary to use the safe compounds in postharvest technology of fruits and vegetables. In this study, the effect of nitric oxide (NO; at concentrations of 3 and 5 μmol L Putrescine (at concentrations of 1 and 2 mmol L -1) chloride Calcium (at concentrations of 25, 50 and 75 mmol L-1) on postharvest life and quality of Cammarosa strawberry fruit during storage at 2.5 C with 85-95% RH for 14 days was studied. Total phenolic, total acidity, vitamin C, Fruit softening and Fruit firmness were evaluated. The treatment of fruit with 1, 2 μmol L-1 Putrescine and the treatment with a combination of NO, Putrescine and Chloride Calcium significantly maintained fruit Total Phenolic at the end of the storage. The treatment with a combination of 3μmol L -1 NO, 25 and 50 μmol Chloride calcium significantly maintained total acidity at 7 day. The results showed that 3μmol L -1 NO and 25 μmol Chloride calcium treatments preserved vitamin C. The treatment with a combination of NO, Putrescine and Chloride calcium significantly prevented fruit softening. In addition, the results indicated that the use of NO, Putrescine and Chloride calcium may be introduced as an effective and successful strategy in postharvest technology of the Cammarosa strawberry fruit. The treatment with Chloride calcium significantly protected firmness fruits.
Keywords: Strawberry, Putrescine, Nitric Oxide, Chloride Calcium
INTRODUCTIONStrawberry belongs to the race of Rosacea and the genus of Fragaria and includes 35 varieties.
Strawberry, grapes, blueberries and raspberries are types of small fruits among which grapes and strawberry are of more importance and are being cultivated while raspberries and blueberries are wildly grown in different arias (Khoshkhooy et al., 1994). In terms of human nutrition, there are three principal issues as following. First, food must be able to satisfy quantitative needs of our body in terms of calories and satisfaction of hunger. Second, food must be qualitatively balanced; it means that it must supply sufficient amounts of proteins, vitamins, minerals and etc. which lack of any of them causes malnutrition.
Third, it should be free from any adverse effects. Vegetables and fruits as a main category of food can help reaching all three aforementioned goals, but it is clear that the importance of a special vegetable or fruit is bound to its special compounds. Researches of the new science of nutrition have proved that consumption of vegetables and fruits prevents several common diseases. As a result, the people of developed countries include more vegetables and fruits in their diets rather than animal products (Asniashari and Zakaei, 2009a).
Quality conservation and increasing the durability of vegetables and fruits is extremely important and is mainly related to the status of sales markets. On this basis, in order to increase profitability, conservation of the quality of products is necessary. Also satisfaction of consumer needs for several types of vegetables and fruits during the year is only possible through long term storage of products. A large portion of agriculture products are wasted before they reach consumer markets (Asniashari and Zakaei, 2009a).
Harvested products are usually highly putrescent and without application of suitable technics and methods, their capability for transportation and maintenance for consumption in all seasons, adjustment of markets and shipment to distant markets declines. In addition, nowadays there is a high emphasis on the nutritional value of vegetables and fruits and in order to attract global consumers, there must be vast © Copyright 2015 | Centre for Info Bio Technology (CIBTech) 26 Cibtech Journal of Zoology ISSN: 2319–3883 (Online) An Open Access, Online International Journal Available at http://www.cibtech.org/cjz.htm 2015 Vol. 4 (1) January-April, pp.26-36/Amini and Habibi Research Article researches undertaken regarding increasing the nutritional value of vegetables and fruits. Meanwhile, health of food is the first important index in evaluation of food in a way that not only the products should be free from diseases and pests, but also existence of any kind of chemical residues in them is inacceptable and application of chemical compounds which are harmful for the environment and humane health is seriously questioned (Asqari, 2007; Rahemi, 1995).
With respect to high putrescent attributes of strawberry, on one hand it is necessary to implement sound methods for decreasing wastes and increasing the shelf life of the product and on the other hand, since the interval between harvesting and consuming this product is short, application of chemicals in post harvesting technology of strawberry is impossible because the applied chemicals will not have enough time to decompose and respectively will enter the consumer's body. On this basis, finding healthy and non-chemical materials is the first research priority in strawberry's post harvesting physiology (Asniashari and Zakaei, 2009a).
The purpose of this research is to investigate the effects of post harvesting application of Nitric Acid, Chloride Calcium and Putrescine (as a polyamine) in conservation of qualitative attributes of Cammarosa strawberry and preservative role of these compounds in preventing decomposition of fruit's advantageous compounds such as Vitamin C and phenolic compounds.
MATERIALS AND METHODSMethods Chemical Compounds Gallic acid, Folin-Ciocalteau, Sodium Carbonate, Ascorbic Acid, 2, 6-Dichlorophenol indophenol, Sodium Nitroprussiate Dihydrate, Metaphosphoric Acid, 1, 4-D-Amino Butane and Hydroxide Sodium purchased from Sigma Company located in St. Louise, MO, USA.
Treatment with Putrescine Fruits were treated with Putrescine via a immersing method for two minutes and were placed in plastic dishes after drying and were transferred to a refrigerator at 2 degrees and relative humidity of 85-95 percent.
For this research, strawberry fruits were immersed in a solution containing 0, 1 and 2 MM of 1, 4-DAmino Butane.
Treatment with Chloride Calcium For this purpose, Cammarosa strawberries were immersed in 0, 25, 50 and 75MM solutions of Chloride calcium for two minutes and afterwards, were dried in lab atmosphere and were kept in a refrigerator at 2 degrees for 14 days.
Treatment with Nitric Acid For this purpose the Cammarosa strawberries were sprayed with 0, 3 and 5MM solutions of Sodium Nitro-Pruccide which releases Nitric Acid. After the treatment, fruits were put in a refrigerator on a plastic dish at 2 degrees for 14 days with humidity of 85 to 95 percent.
For undertaking each of the aforementioned treatments, a number of 15 healthy strawberries without any physical deformities and abnormal shape were selected.
Ultimately, the control fruits were also treated with distilled water.
Fruit's Total Phenol Measurement of Phenolic compounds was completed via Folin-Ciocalteau as following (Waterhouse, 2002). First the strawberry juice was diluted with distilled water with the ratio of 10 percent. 1mm of strawberry juice, different standard values of Gallic Acid and 1mm of Blanc (Deionized or distilled water) were mixed in a container and respectively 70mm water was added to the solution. Afterwards 5mm of Folin-Ciocalteau reactor was mixed with the solution and next, the solution was kept in room temperature for 3 to 5 minutes. After that, 15mm of Sodium Carbonate solution was added to the mixture and the total weight of the solution was reached to 100mm by adding extra water. Ultimately 4mm of the yielded solution was putted in Spectro-photometer with a wavelength of 765nm and the absorption was recorded.
Titratable Acidity © Copyright 2015 | Centre for Info Bio Technology (CIBTech) 27 Cibtech Journal of Zoology ISSN: 2319–3883 (Online) An Open Access, Online International Journal Available at http://www.cibtech.org/cjz.htm 2015 Vol. 4 (1) January-April, pp.26-36/Amini and Habibi Research Article For determining the amount of Titratable acids, the Titration method with 0.1 normal benefits was used.
For this purpose, 10mm of filtered solution was putted in a 250ml flask and 40ml of distilled water and a few drops of Phenolphthalein were added to the solution and next, it was normalized with 0.1 benefits.
When the color of the solution changed to pink and was stabilized for about 30 seconds, the amount of consumed benefits was determined (Nadeem et al., 2010).
Firmness of Fruit Texture For determining the firmness of fruit's texture the TA-XTplus device (made by England's Stable Micro System Company) was used. For this purpose, the single axle penetration test was applied. The pre-test speed of the device was set to 2mm per second and it test speed was set to 1mm per second and also the post-test speed of the device was set to 10mm per second. The used Probe was a cylindrical stainless steel type with flat base and diameter of 6 millimeters. The probe's displacement was set to 10 millimeters. The values of force with an accuracy of 0.1g, distance with an accuracy of 0.001mm and time with an accuracy of 0.001 second were recorded and the maximum required force for penetration was readout from time-force vectors (Vargas et al., 2006).
Vitamin C For determining the value of vitamin C, the Titration method and the solution of 2, 6-Dichlorophenol indophenols were used and finally the value of vitamin C was calculated on the basis of milligrams of Ascorbic Acid in 100 g sample (Husseini, 1991).
Statistical Analysis The test was undertaken in a factorial design on the basis of a pure random method with 11 treatments and 3 repetitions in two periods of 7 and 14 days. Statistical analyses were undertaken via the software of SAS 9.1 and comparisons of mean were carried out through Duncan's multiple range test.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONResults and Conclusion Since the sampling and evaluation of attributes were carried out in two different times, in addition to applied material, the element of time is also introduced to calculations. Two sampling times are as
Time1: seventh day after storage in refrigerator Time2: fourteenth day after storage in refrigerator
Fruit's Total Phenol The content of phenolic compounds was declined in all treatments at the end of storage time and this declination was lower in treated fruits with first compositional treatment and Putrescine in both densities.
Among the implemented materials, the first compositional treatment (putrescence 1MM + Chloride Calcium 50 MM + Nitric Oxide 3MM) and Putrescine treatments were more effective in maintenance of © Copyright 2015 | Centre for Info Bio Technology (CIBTech) 28 Cibtech Journal of Zoology ISSN: 2319–3883 (Online) An Open Access, Online International Journal Available at http://www.cibtech.org/cjz.htm 2015 Vol. 4 (1) January-April, pp.26-36/Amini and Habibi Research Article total Phenol in both densities. This is while the 3MM and 5MM Nitric Oxide had the least effectiveness in maintenance of total Phenol in treated fruits.
1317.5 1361.667 1300.667 1259.667 1336.66 1314.83 1307.33 1181.167 1241.5 Figure 1: The effect of chemical treatments on total phenol of Cammarosa strawberry Put1: 1MM Putrescine, put2: 2MM Putrescine, CaCl2 25: 25MM Chloride Calcium, CaCl2 50: 50MM Chloride Calcium, CaCl2 75: 75MM Chloride Calcium, NO3: 3MM Nitric Oxide, NO5: 5MM Nitric Oxide, COMP1: 1MM Putrescine + 50MM Chloride Calcium + 3MM Nitric Oxide, COMP2: 2MM Putrescine + 75MM Chloride Calcium + 5MM Nitric Oxide, COMP3: 1MM Putrescine + 25MM Chloride Calcium + 3MM Nitric Oxide, Control: Control treatment In the present research, the content of Phenolic compositions had declined for all treatments at the end of storage time and this declination was lower in treated fruits and therefore, the entire undertaken treatments had a significant effect on inhibiting the reduction of total Phenol value except for distilled water treatment.
It seems that treatment with Putrescine and Chloride Calcium inhibits the deterioration of total Phenols via inhibiting the activity of Enzymes which dissect Phenolic compositions such as Poly Phenol Oxidase and respective reduction in production of ethylene.
It is also been said that concentrations of Nitric Acid of less than 1MM per liter impose a preventive effect of the activity of Poly Phenol Oxidase and Phenyl alanine Ammonialiase (Zoo et al., 2009b).
Treatment with Chloride Calcium and Putrescine decreases aspiration and as a result declines the production and effects of Ethylene and also leads to a decreased activity of Phenyl alanine Ammonialiase and ultimately prevents loss of total Phenol value (Hivido, 1978).
Valero et al., (1997) indicated that treatment of pomegranate with Polyamines leads to preservation of the density of Ascorbic Acid and increased Phenolic compositions compared to control fruits. This suggests the decrease of activities of Phenol Oxidase Enzyme and as a result, the brownish effect decreases. Their findings are in compliance with the results of Doan et al., (2007).