«United States Department of State Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs International Narcotics Control Strategy Report ...»
During FY 2009, TRI initiated a Mexican Federal Police SSP Training Program. Beginning July 2009, DEA's Special Agents, Intelligence Research Specialists, and Diversion Investigators traveled to the Mexican Federal Police Academy located in San Luis Potosi, Mexico, to provide instruction on Police Intelligence. The Police Intelligence Course demonstrates how evidence collected during investigations can be analyzed and presented and defended in court. The inclusion of DEA, other federal, state and local agencies, as well as foreign national police agencies from countries such as Spain, Colombia, Czechoslovakia, Holland, and Canada, in the training of the Mexican federal police, known as the Mexican Secretariat of Public Security (SSP), sets a precedent for the Mexican government, and came about as part of the Merida Initiative. During FY 2010, TRI continued to conduct the Mexican Federal Police: SSP Training Program which provided training for approximately 2,735 Mexican officers. A new program will be introduced in FY 2011 providing instruction on Evidence Collection.
Afghanistan Regional Training Team (RTT) Program The U.S. Government supports the RTT‘s primary mission to provide specialty law enforcement training to the Counter Narcotics Police of Afghanistan (CNP-A), as well as the neighboring regional countries. In FY 2010, TRI was instrumental in developing a Regional Training Team (RTT) concept of operations that enabled DEA to provide specialty law enforcement training to approximately 2,825 law enforcement counterparts assigned to the CNP-A and neighboring regional countries. Approximately 191 Afghan law enforcement officials received training thus far during the first quarter of FY 2011.
The RTT training mission focuses on providing the necessary skills in: basic counter narcotics investigations, maintenance of basic skills, advanced counter narcotics investigations, establishment of self-initiated investigations, and the creation of specialized units. Instruction is provided in a ―building block‖ style which begins with a Basic Course and progresses to Specialty Courses, such as, Undercover, Operation Planning, Surveillance, Technical Training,
INCSR 2011 Volume 1 Drug Enforcement Administration
Investigative Techniques, Intelligence Analysis, and Leadership. The use of practical exercises is a key element.
The RTT coordinates with other established counter narcotics training programs, the Afghanistan government, and the international community on content of courses and delivery schedules for them. The RTT‘s goal is to develop a core of professional counter narcotics investigators throughout the region. This concept was so well received that it is being used as the model for training in Africa. As a result of the success of the program an RTT Program for Central Asia will also be initiated in FY 2011 to include former Soviet Block Countries in Central Asia.
Development of Host Country Drug Law Enforcement Institutions DEA‘s fourth Key Mission Objective is to assist in the development of host country drug law enforcement institutions and form effective cooperative relationships with foreign law enforcement organizations.
Afghanistan DEA, in close coordination with the interagency community, continued to implement a comprehensive Afghanistan expansion plan. This plan called for a significant increase in DEA personnel throughout Afghanistan. As a result, DEA will assign additional direct hire personnel to the Kabul Country Office area of responsibility. The expansion plan includes five Enforcement Groups forward deployed to Kabul, and Regional Commands in Herat, Kandahar, Konduz, and Jalalabad.
DEA capacity-building efforts in Afghanistan are primarily focused on the CNP-A. An excellent relationship between DEA, the Department of Defense (DoD), and the Department of State has focused capacity building efforts on specialized units within the CNP-A, combining training, equipment and infrastructure with mentoring and operational interaction with DEA enforcement teams, DEA training teams, and experienced mentor/advisors. These specialized units have developed to the point where they can operate with limited coalition support and are engaged with DEA on a daily basis on joint operations and investigations.
Afghan Threat Finance Cell (ATFC) As a result of a decision by the National Security Council, DEA works closely with the Afghan Threat Finance Cell (ATCC). The ATFC identifies financiers operating throughout Afghanistan with connections to insurgent activities, drug trafficking and public corruption. The ATFC then produces target packages for many of these financiers which are passed to the military and law enforcement officials for action.
Ghana Vetted Unit In FY 2010, DEA established the Ghana Vetted Unit (GVU). The mission of the GVU is to develop, train, advise and mentor a professional counterdrug unit in Ghana that will have primary responsibility for counterdrug initiatives nationwide. The GVU will also serve as the cornerstone in the development of a counterdrug infrastructure needed to identify, disrupt, and dismantle criminal drug trafficking and money laundering organizations operating throughout West Africa. In August 2010, the GVU was fully operational and graduated its first class. The GVU is the first DEA vetted police unit in Africa.
Mexico City Chemical Group This group has provided training to the Government of Mexico (GOM) counterparts regarding methamphetamine trends and skills for targeting and combating the clandestine Laboratory/Precursor Chemical operations of DTOs. The Chemical Group is also working with
INCSR 2011 Volume 1 Drug Enforcement Administration
GOM entities to help develop a Chemical Work Task Force between various GOM entities, to include regulatory, law enforcement, judicial/ prosecutorial, and military entities.
Sensitive Investigative Unit (SIU) Shortly after Congress approved the SIU program in 1996, the Mexico City SIU was established, and DEA now works closely with a number of trusted counterparts throughout the country. In FY 2010, DEA and the GOM reorganized the SIU, and integrated vetted prosecutors from the PGR (Attorney Generals‘ Office) / SIEDO (Deputy Attorney General‘s Office of Special Investigations on Organized Crime) into the SIU. This investigative initiative creates a multifaceted investigative approach in order to target and investigate all aspects of the Transnational Criminal Organizations‘ criminal enterprises, to include narcotics, arms trafficking, and financial crimes.
Financial Investigative Team (FIT) The SSP created a FIT in 2007. The SSP FIT is located in Mexico City and they conduct investigations throughout Mexico. The unit works side-by-side with the SIU to conduct parallel financial investigations. The SSP FIT has received training from DOJ, DEA Financial Operations, and some of the investigators were once members of the Mexico SIU. The FIT is supported by the Mexico City Country Office.
INCSR 2011 Volume 1 U.S. Coast Guard United States Coast Guard
The U.S. Coast Guard plays a crucial role in efforts to keep dangerous narcotic drugs moving by sea from reaching market countries. The Coast Guard‘s Drug Interdiction Mission Performance Plan (MPP) establishes goals, objectives and performance metrics that the Coast Guard Drug Interdiction program intends to achieve in the next five years. To reach its targets, the Coast Guard will continually assess mission performance and make periodic adjustments to its operational focus and out-year plans. There
are three primary elements to the Coast Guard Drug Interdiction Mission:
Detection & Monitoring Detection of narcotics trafficking vessels occurs principally through the collection, analysis, and dissemination of tactical information and strategic intelligence combined with effective sensors operating from land, air and surface assets. The six million square mile transit zone between source nations in South America and the United States is far too expansive to randomly patrol; targeting information is necessary to focus efforts. Timely, actionable intelligence is the best force-multiplier available to the operational commander. Upon detection, the Coast Guard, and other similar U.S. and partner nation law enforcement agencies will provide monitoring, relaying data, imagery and position information until an appropriate interdiction asset arrives on scene.
Inte rdiction Successful targeting and interdiction of illicit activities create a deterrent effect. Interdiction success causes Drug Trafficking Organizations (DTOs) to incur greater costs and decreased efficiency in moving their illicit product to market. In recent years the Coast Guard has been successful in interdicting foreign flagged vessels, frequently flags of convenience, carrying multi-ton loads of contraband. A crucial element in that success was the system of agreements with many countries around the world which permit enforcement officers to stop, board, and search vessels suspected of transporting narcotics. This has caused DTOs to sharply reduce the use of flags of convenience in favor of stateless go-fast and similar style vessels, as well as investing in more technologically advanced self-propelled semi (SPSS) and fully submersible (SPFS) vessels. The result has been increased costs to the DTOs to outfit their trafficking vessels and greater risk of prosecution to smugglers interdicted on stateless vessels, since stateless vessels are subject to U.S. jurisdiction.
Interdiction success requires a sufficient number of air and surface assets to respond to intelligence and operational cueing. Surface and air assets equipped with robust sensor systems, endurance, range, and speed, coupled with a range of use of force options to stop non-compliant vessels, enable transit zone operations across a spectrum of weather conditions. To increase its operational law enforcement reach, the Coast Guard embarks deployable Law Enforcement Detachments (LEDETs) on U.S. Navy and Allied warships, and embarks partner nation ―shipriders‖ aboard Coast Guard vessels, consistent with Memorandums of Understanding, bilateral agreements and other arrangements in force.
Close Working Partnerships with both Domestic and International Agencies The Coast Guard would not be as effective in removing drugs from the transit zone without the significant interagency and international cooperation that comes together at Joint Interagency Task Force South and West (JIATF-S and JIATF-W). The Coast Guard provides staff and command cadre to both Task Forces, which have primary responsibilities for counterdrug detection and monitoring operations in the U.S. Southern Command and U.S. Pacific Command areas of responsibility. As Transnational Criminal Organizations (TCO) and DTOs in the Western Hemisphere expand their INCSR 2011 Volume 1 U.S. Coast Guard operations, the Coast Guard is also increasingly engaged with U.S. European Command and U.S.
Africa Command to meet the threat in those areas. The Coast Guard contributes to international counterdrug efforts through development and active use of agreements, operational procedures, professional exchanges, sharing best practices, and deployment of mobile training teams to support Theater Security Cooperation initiatives. Engagement in joint operations and training strengthens ties with partner nations and increases maritime law enforcement competency and capability.
There are 37 maritime bilateral counterdrug agreements or operational procedures in place between the United States and partner nations. These agreements and arrangements help the USG move toward its goal of disrupting illicit trafficking within the transit zone and eliminating safe havens for smugglers. In the summer of 2010, the United States entered into temporary international agreements with Morocco, Cape Verde and Senegal as part of the Africa Maritime Law Enforcement Partnership (AMLEP).
AMLEP is a combined law enforcement program designed to build partner nation maritime law enforcement capacity and help detect illicit activities through joint law enforcement operations. In the wake of AMLEP‘s success, the U.S. and Senegal are negotiating a permanent bilateral agreement. The U.S. and Canada furthered their joint efforts to combat illicit drugs by signing an agreement to allow Coast Guard law enforcement personnel to embark on Canadian forces aircraft and ships. This agreement will serve as a force multiplier in joint task force operating areas.
International Cooperative Efforts:
Overall during FY 2010, the Coast Guard disrupted 122 drug smuggling attempts, which resulted in the seizure of 56 vessels, the detention of 229 suspected smugglers, and the removal of 91.8 MT of cocaine and 16.7 MT of marijuana. Nearly all of these interdictions involved some type of foreign partner support or cooperation, through direct unit participation, exercise of bilateral agreements, granting permission to board, or logistics support.
The Ecuadorian police assisted by their Navy and with intelligence from the DEA seized the first documented SPFS vessel in July 2010. The vessel proved to be a significant leap forward in capability and technology. This vessel‘s ability to smuggle large loads (6-10 MT of cocaine), travel submerged, and only needing to surface for a few hours each day to recharge batteries necessitate modification of existing law enforcement tactics, techniques and procedures to combat this new threat. DTOs use of SPSS vessels dropped off considerably in FY10, with 18 events carrying an estimated 94 MT, of which 14.5 MT were removed by the Coast Guard in three cases, compared with 60 documented cases carrying 332 MT of cocaine in FY09. The Drug Trafficking Vessel Interdiction Act (DTVIA) of 2008 continued to provide an effective prosecution tool by outlawing the operation of stateless SPSS and SPFS in international waters with the intent to evade detection. Despite the use of technologically advanced smuggling conveyances in recent years, the go-fast and similar style vessels (including pangas, lanchas and pirogues) remain the smuggling vessels of choice within the Central American and Caribbean littorals.