«United States Department of State Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs International Narcotics Control Strategy Report ...»
The use of new precursors and chemicals in the production of illegal substances is a similar problem. For example, the ingredients used to produce the synthetic drug MDMA are different today from those ingredients found in the ―club drug‖ when it first appeared. New harmful synthetic concoctions are regularly reported by intelligence and law enforcement authorities. To meet the goal of controlling chemicals and illegal drug precursors, all countries should become full partners in the United Nations PreExport Notification (PEN) online data-base system.
The international community faces an array of emerging challenges that will require active and close cooperation in the years ahead. The use of self-propelled semi-submersible vessels, designed exclusively for smuggling, serves as a prime example. Effectively screening containers for illegal cargo among the thousands of shipments that pass through lawful ports of entry will also remain a significant challenge.
The international community will need to continue to focus on innovative ways to counter money laundering and corruption, which are so often linked to insurgencies and terrorism.
Working to stop these illegal activities and protect like-minded nations around the world is directly tied to the security and prosperity of the American people. To that end, the United States is committed to enhancing the capacity of new and maturing democracies to uphold their international drug and crime control commitments.
Through this report, the United States seeks to provide a clear assessment of progress and challenges. It is only over the longer term that sustainable success can be measured. This year‘s INCSR demonstrates that the policies and programs of individual nations, along with the courage and determination of the international community, are advancing common goals and objectives.
Demand Reduction Demand reduction has evolved as a key foreign policy tool for addressing the inter-connected threats of drugs, crime, and terrorism in places like Afghanistan. More recently, it has become a critical component in efforts to stop the spread of HIV/AIDS, where intravenous drug use is the mechanism of transmission.
Drug abuse and addiction have a devastating impact on individual lives, families, and communities. Drug abuse is also inextricably linked with the spread of infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS, Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD), tuberculosis, and hepatitis C. Drug abuse is associated with family disintegration, loss of employment or income, school failure, domestic violence, child abuse, and other social problems and criminal acts. Based on the U.S. experience in trying to reduce the demand for drugs at home, many foreign countries request INL-sponsored technical assistance to enhance the development of effective policies and programs to combat narcotics abuse in countries around the world. INL is ready to provide guidance to international partners, which is based on a coordinated approach in the areas of drug prevention and treatment. INL promotes the sharing of critical information and evidence-based studies, in order to promote and preserve the stability of societies that are threatened by the narcotics trade and narcotics abuse.
INL‘s demand reduction strategy includes a wide range of initiatives to address the needs and national security threats posed by the illicit drug trade. These efforts cover programs to prevent the onset of drug
INCSR 2011 Volume 1 Policy and Program Development
use, intervention with drug abusers, and improvement of treatment delivery. In achieving these goals, INL
supports the following:
Training and technical assistance to educate governments and NGOs on science-based best practices in drug prevention and treatment;
Development and support of regional and international coalitions for drug-free communities, involving private/public social institutions and law enforcement working together to educate communities about the dangers of drug abuse;
Research and evaluation efforts, to measure the effectiveness of intended prevention and treatment programs and the kinds and extent of current drug use in a community; and Dissemination of science-based information and knowledge transfer through multilateral and regional organizations.
INL supports substance abuse treatment, training and technical assistance that addresses women‘s drug treatment issues, and related violence. These programs respond to the unique needs of female drug addicts.
Significant completed and on-going INL-funded demand reduction projects for Fiscal Year 2010
Women Drug Treatment Initiatives : INL supports research-based prevention and treatment programs in key drug producing /using countries that improve services for addicted women and their children, a chronically under-served and stigmatized population. The program supports a model residential drug treatment program for high-risk female youth in Brazil. INL also supports the development of a training curriculum, which will address the unique needs of female addicts worldwide.
Mexico/Merida: In October 2010, the OAS/CICAD signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with the Government of Mexico through the National Council against Addiction (CONADIC), establishing a process and a framework for cooperation for carrying-out programs and activities. Under this Memorandum, INL is supporting the OAS/CICAD in the Mexico/Merida initiative to establish a national-level counselor certification system for drug abuse counselors aimed at improving the delivery of drug treatment services in Mexico. Thus far, three Needs Assessments have been conducted; training of 600 counselors will begin in early 2011.
Drug-Free Communities: INL is supporting the drug-free communities program which assists community groups in forming and sustaining effective community anti-drug coalitions that fight illegal drugs. The goal of these coalitions is to bring citizens together to prevent and reduce drug use among youth. Membership includes youth, parents, businesses, the media, schools, youth organizations, law enforcement, religious and fraternal organizations, civic groups and local government. As a result of INL-funded training, active coalitions have been developed in several communities in Peru, Brazil, Colombia, Guatemala and Mexico.
Colombo Plan: The USG and the Colombo Plan Drug Advisory Program (DAP) established a training arm for treatment experts to prepare the process of professional certification of addiction professionals in Asia.
UNODC: INL is supporting the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) global TREATNET Project that provides comprehensive treatment-provider training and technical assistance to improve treatment delivery systems in Asia, Africa and Latin America. The primary emphasis of the initiative is to share drug treatment best practices with the aim to assist service providers to improve the quality of services and to guide policy makers in programming more effectively.
Afghanistan: INL currently supports 26 residential treatment centers in Afghanistan. This initiative includes training female addiction counselors in counseling techniques for women, family therapy, and
INCSR 2011 Volume 1 Policy and Program Development
support for home-based treatment. Of the 26 centers, six provide residential treatment for women with adjacent facilities for their children and two centers provide residential treatment services for adolescent males. In 2011, INL will also begin support for an adolescent female treatment center.
Methodology for USG Estimates of Illegal Drug Production Introduction Illegal narcotics are grown, refined, trafficked, and sold on the street by criminal enterprises that attempt to conceal every step of the process. Accurate estimates of such criminal activity are difficult to produce.
The estimates on illicit drug production presented in the INCSR represent the United States Government‘s best effort to sketch the current dimensions of the international drug problem. They are based on agricultural surveys conducted with satellite imagery and scientific studies of crop yields and the likely efficiency of typical illicit refining labs. As we do every year, we publish these estimates with an important caveat: they are estimates. While we must express our estimates as numbers, these numbers should not be seen as precise figures. Rather, they represent the midpoint of a band of statistical probability that gets wider as additional variables are introduced and as we move from cultivation to harvest to final refined drug. Although these estimates can be useful for determining trends, even the best USG estimates are ultimately only approximations.
As needed, we revise our estimate process-and occasionally the estimates themselves-in the light of field research. The clandestine, violent nature of the illegal drug trade makes such field research difficult.
Geography is also an impediment, as the harsh terrain on which many drugs are cultivated is not always easily accessible. This is particularly relevant given the tremendous geograph ic areas that must be covered, and the difficulty of collecting reliable information over diverse and treacherous terrain.
Weather also impacts our ability to gather data, particularly in the Andes, where cloud-cover can be a major problem.
Improved technologies and analysis techniques may also produce revisions to United States Government estimates of potential drug production. This is typical of annualized figures for most other areas of statistical tracking that must be revised year to year, whether the subject of analysis is the size of the U.S.
wheat crop, population figures, or the reports of the unemployment rate. When possible, we apply these new techniques to previous years‘ data and adjust appropriately, but often, especially in the case of new technologies, we can only apply them prospectively. For the present, these illicit drug statistics represent the state of the art. As new information becomes available and as the art and science improve, so will the accuracy of the estimates.
Cultivation Estimates With limited personnel and technical resources, we cannot look at an entire country for any hint of illicit cultivation. Analysts must, therefore concentrate their efforts on those areas that are most likely to have cultivation. Each year they review eradication data, seizure data, law enforcement investigations information, the previous year‘s imagery, and other information to determine the areas likely to have cultivation, and revise and update the search area if possible. They then estimate cultivation in the new survey area using proven statistical techniques.
The resultant estimates meet the USG need for an annual estimate of cultivation for each country. They also help with eradication, interdiction and other law enforcement operations. As part of the effort to provide a better and more comprehensive assessment, the areas surveyed are often expanded and changed, so direct comparison with previous year estimates may not be possible.
INCSR 2011 Volume 1 Policy and Program Development
Production Estimates Illicit crop productivity depends upon a number of factors. Changes in weather, farming techniques, soil fertility, and disease prevalence can produce widely varying results from year to year and place to place.
Although most illicit drug crop areas are not easily accessible to the United States Government, making scientific information difficult to obtain, we continually strive to improve our production estimates. The relative productivity of poppy crops can be estimated using imagery, and our confidence in coca leaf yield estimates has improved in the past few years, based upon the results of field studies conducted in Latin America. Such studies led to a reduction in our estimates of average productivity for fields that had been sprayed with herbicide, but not completely destroyed. In such fields, some, but not all of the coca bushes survive. The farmers of the illicit crop either plant new bushes among the surviving plants or let what is left grow until harvest. In either case, the average yield of such plots is considerably less than if it had not been sprayed. Multiple studies in the same growing area over several years have helped us understand the effects of eradication and have helped us to measure the changes in average yield over time.
Coca fields which are less than a year old (―new fields‖) produce much less leaf than mature fields. In Colombia, for example, fields might get their first small harvest at six months of age; in Bolivia fields are usually not harvested in their first year. The USG estimates include estimates for the proportion of new fields each year and adjust the estimated leaf production accordingly.
Processing Estimates The wide variation in processing efficiency achieved by traffickers complicates the task of estimating the quantity of cocaine or heroin that could be refined from a crop. Differences in the origin and quality of the raw material used, the technical processing method employed, the size and sophistication of laboratories, the skill and experience of local workers and chemists, and decisions made in response to enforcement pressures all affect production.
The USG estimates for coca leaf, cocaine, marijuana, opium, and heroin production are potential estimates; that is, it is assumed that all of the coca, marijuana, and poppy grown is harvested and processed into illicit drugs. This is a reasonable assumption for coca leaf in Colombia. In Bolivia and Peru, however, the USG potential cocaine production estimates are overestimated to some unknown extent since significant amounts of coca leaf are locally chewed and used in products such as coca tea. In Southwest and Southeast Asia, it is not unrealistic to assume that virtually all poppy is harvested for opium gum, but substantial amounts of the opium are consumed as opium rather than being processed into heroin. (The proportion of opium ultimately processed into heroin is unknown.) Other International Estimates The USG helps fund estimates done by the United Nations in some countries. These estimates use slightly different methodologies, but also use a mix of imagery and ground-based observations. The UN estimates are often used to help determine the response of the international donor community to specific countries or regions.