FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Abstracts, online materials

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 2 | 3 || 5 | 6 |   ...   | 137 |

«United States Department of State Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs International Narcotics Control Strategy Report ...»

-- [ Page 4 ] --

During a recent trip to Mexico, U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton acknowledged that the United States‘ ―insatiable demand for illegal drugs fuels the drug trade.‖ While the overall demand for drugs has diminished over the long term in the United States, the National Survey on Drug Use and Health indicates that illicit drug use increased in the United States in 2009 – with 8.7 percent of the population age12 and older using illegal substances as compared to 8 percent in 2009. This development has prompted the Obama Administration to focus on a reinvigorated approach to prevent drug use and addiction and to make treatment available to those in need.

INCSR 2011 Volume 1 Policy and Program Development

The International Narcotics Control Board (INCB) called on member states ―to integrate drug abuse prevention into public health, health promotion and child and youth prevention programs.‖ Treating the drug user involves a comprehensive system of health and social services. In the United States, for example, an expanding network of drug courts with the purpose of rehabilitating non-violent drug offenders has helped many drug users to become responsible citizens. The model, which started with just one court in Miami, Florida, in 1989, has expanded to more than 2,500 such institutions that promote judicial and law enforcement collaboration with health treatment facilities and social services to meet community and offender needs. Evaluations of these courts over the years have proven that this humane approach for qualifying individuals is a more effective and cost-saving alternative to traditional incarceration.

Today, the drug-court model in the United States, Europe and elsewhere is being fostered and established all over the world. For example, multilateral assistance combined with national resources has resulted in the on-going establishment of drug court systems as an alternative to penal incarceration throughout the Western Hemisphere. For example, in reaction to an epidemic of marijuana use, Jamaica established the first drug court in the Caribbean over 20 years ago. Today, through bilateral programs fostered by such countries as the United States and Canada, and with the help of multilateral organizations such as the Organization of American States Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (OAS/CICAD) and the European Union, the drug court alternative continues to expand.

The Americas:

For more than 10 years, the OAS/CICAD Multilateral Evaluation Mechanism (MEM) has strengthened regional and sub-regional collaboration on all levels, including drug awareness and treatment approaches, information data collection, sharing and harmonizing counternarcotics and crime legislative models, extradition practices and other control measures. The MEM, unique in the world in that it deploys the expertise of independent peer reviewers from all OAS countries, has sparked hundreds of recommendations that individual countries and the CICAD Commission are taking concrete and effective measures to implement.

Implementing the MEM recommendations is an essential part of the toolkit that allows OAS countries to work as a cohesive force against the dual threats of drugs and crime. The MEM focuses on institution building, demand reduction, supply reduction, control measures and international cooperation. Notably, the MEM evaluation country reports published in 2010 prompted the independent hemispheric experts who draft the reports to make over a third of their recommendations in the area of narcotics control measures. These recommendations for action include establishing and/or refining laws and regulations to control weapons, ammunition and related material to stem the growing violence posed by illegal drugs and crime.

Partners in the Western Hemisphere also engage in cooperative relationships with the United States in the fight against drug cartels and transnational organized crime. In the face of significant public safety challenges, Mexico has taken a tough stance against powerful drug lords. Bolstered by complementary initiatives in the United States, the U.S.-Mexico Merida Initiative promotes cooperation at all levels to build Mexican institutional capacity to strike back at the cartels. The success of the bilateral partnership is urgent: law enforcement data indicates that Mexico-based drug trafficking organizations are active in more cities in the United States than any other drug trafficking organizations.

Led by President Filipe Calderon, Mexico is engaged in the arduous task of developing and implementing significant police and rule of law reform. Trafficking organizations have reacted violently, killing some 34,000 people in Mexico in the past four years, but Mexico has been firm in its commitment to regain national stability and to prevent criminal elements from weaving themselves tighter into the fabric of Mexican society. Mexican authorities dealt a major blow in January 2011 when they captured Flavio Mendez Santiago, ―El Amarillo,‖ who directed operations for the infamous ―Zetas‖ criminal gang in three southern Mexican states, including Oaxaca.

INCSR 2011 Volume 1 Policy and Program Development

Support through the Merida Initiative incorporates a U.S.-Mexican prosecutor task force to dismantle Mexican cartels and a bi-national working group to augment law enforcement capacity to prosecute gun smugglers and stand up other key control measures, including the targeting of criminal money laundering.

In 2009, Mexico extradited 107 fugitives to the United States.

The decade-old Plan Colombia, the bilateral counternarcotics between Colombia and the United States, has led to impressive results. Colombia‘s success in rebuilding its nation is due in no small part to U.S.

technical and financial support but also to the will of the Colombian government and its people. Once mortally threatened by illegal insurgents, armed groups, and seemingly invincible drug kingpins, Colombia today has regained the upper hand as a vibrant democracy now able to transfer its ―lessons learned‖ to Afghanistan, Mexico, Haiti and Central America. As the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy Director Gil Kerlikowske said in Bogota in January 2011, Colombia ―serves as a beacon of hope for other nations struggling with the threat to democracy posed by drug trafficking and related crime.‖ Colombia‘s leadership intends to sustain progress through a continued firm response to destabilizing influences and expansion of good governance to long-ignored rural areas of the country.

Central America and the Caribbean, transit zones for illegal drugs destined for the United States, are the focus of two important Administration multilateral initiatives to deter the displacement of crime from Mexico and Colombia: these are the Central American Regional Security Initiative (CARSI) and the Caribbean Basin Security Initiative (CBSI). Justice sector capacity building under CARSI and CBSI will expand on bilateral programs aimed at promoting the rule of law, reducing illegal weapons trafficking, countering the insidious influence of gangs, and enhancing law enforcement efforts against money laundering.

In the President‘s FY 2011 Majors List report to Congress, both Venezuela and Bolivia were found to have ―failed demonstrably‖ to meet their international narcotics control commitments. Despite the capture and deportation to Colombia of several suspects connected to terrorist groups in 2010, Venezuela appears to tolerate the presence of such organizations and did not take significant steps to limit their ability to operate inside Venezuelan territory. Moreover, since stopping formal cooperation with the U.S.

Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) in 2005, Venezuela has maintained only limited case-by-case cooperation with the United States. In Bolivia, coca cultivation has expanded significantly during the government of President Evo Morales. The country‘s ability to identify, investigate and dismantle drug trafficking organizations remains considerably diminished following its expulsion of DEA personnel from Bolivia in January 2009.

Southwest Asia:

Afghanistan cultivates 90 percent of the world‘s supply of opium poppy for heroin. Active insurgencies tied to drug traffickers in the southern and western provinces of Afghanistan overlap with 98 percent of the country‘s poppy cultivation. Although plantings of this crop remained static in 2010, opium production decreased due to unfavorable weather conditions and an agricultural blight. The United States and its NATO allies are working with Afghanistan to strengthen basic law enforcement institutions and other civil society infrastructure to further the development of alternative livelihoods to poppy cultivation.

In order to significantly reduce its poppy crop, the Government of Afghanistan must reinforce its determination to foster results-based programs that promote concrete institution building and root out corruption, a fundamental element contributing to instability.

With the support of international assistance, opium poppy cultivation has declined significantly. Today, only seven provinces in Afghanistan cultivate opium poppy as compared to 21 provinces in 2005. More incentives will be required to compel farmers to move to legal livelihoods, and to break their ties to traffickers and insurgents.

Opium from Afghanistan is primarily transmitted via Eastern and Central Europe to Western Europe.

According to United Nations reports, Russia, Portugal and Spain, suffer from the greatest number of

INCSR 2011 Volume 1 Policy and Program Development

heroin users in Europe. Important transit countries around Afghanistan include Pakistan, Iran, Tajikistan and other Central Asian countries.

Pakistan is a top national security priority for the United States. The country‘s serious problems with drug trafficking and addiction are strongly associated with instability and lawlessness on its 1,500 mile frontier which includes the rugged and remote Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) along the border with Afghanistan. This region is ideally suited to drug trafficking operations. Moreover, these challenges are compounded by Pakistani Taliban and allied militant groups operating in the region. Given the enormous distances and terrain, the reach of Pakistani anti-drug forces has been limited. Despite these challenges, United States bilateral counternarcotics assistance will continue to incorporate programs to extend civilian law enforcement reach throughout the country.

In the absence of official relations with Iran, the United States depends on other sources for data on the country‘s significant illegal drug problem, both in terms of heroin use and the production and distribution of methamphetamine-type stimulants. The United Nations estimates that as much as 40 percent of opiates departing Afghanistan go through Iran for local consumption or onward transit to European markets.

Estimates show there are some 1.2 million opium users in Iran, nearly 2.5 percent of the population.

Southeast Asia:

After Afghanistan, Burma is the second largest global cultivator of opium poppy for illegal heroin production. Between 1998 and 2006, the land devoted to poppy cultivation declined, but the United Nations reports that in 2010 there was a sharp increase in area cultivated by nearly 50 percent. Burmese production of illegal methamphetamines, marketed as amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) also continues to increase. Law enforcement investigations show that ATS pills manufactured in Burma are produced in the millions and trafficked to Thailand, down the Asian peninsula and in smaller quantities, even north into China.

U.S. programs in Asia have traditionally focused on reducing opium production and raising law enforcement capacity. In Laos and Thailand, foreign assistance has historically helped local governments identify alternatives to poppy cultivation for minority hill tribes. Law enforcement capacity building programs in the region are carried out primarily by the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) and U.S. funds are integral to drug awareness and demand reduction initiatives implemented by the United Nations Offices of Drugs and Crime (UNODC).


United States initiatives in Africa are based on the growing concern about drug smuggling and its potential to destabilize West African countries such as Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Nigeria and Liberia. The principal method of conveyance for cocaine to West Africa is via mother ships from the east coast of Latin America, especially Venezuela and Brazil. Because of natural linguistic links, Brazil has stepped up programs to establish counternarcotics initiatives with Portuguese-speaking African nations to thwart the movement of cocaine on its way to Europe, with Spain and Portugal serving as the main European gateway countries.

United States and European partnerships in Africa are dedicated to promoting the rule of law in countries that are threatened by political, social and economic instability, making them especially vulnerable to criminal enterprise and corruption. The proceeds of drugs trafficked in this part of the world and sold in Europe flow back to the same cartels that traffic illegal drugs to the United States. To further cooperative efforts against this threat, the United States and the European Union will host a Trans-Atlantic Symposium on Illicit Networks in Lisbon in May 2011. The U.S. will also participate in an upcoming GMinisterial on Cocaine Trafficking, also scheduled for May 2011.

INCSR 2011 Volume 1 Policy and Program Development

Looking to the Future:

International cooperation and coordinated action are needed to address the worldwide challenge posed by drug trafficking and transnational organized crime. This includes monitoring new and emerging criminal activity designed to avoid detection. In the past several years, for example, national leaders and law enforcement have been working to thwart the use of the Internet to facilitate drug smuggling. This includes efforts to stop the increasingly common practice of establishing virtual pharmacies on the Internet for the illicit sale of both legally produced medicines and counterfeit pharmaceuticals.

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 2 | 3 || 5 | 6 |   ...   | 137 |

Similar works:

«Southern Horrors: Lynch Law in All Its Phases By Ida B. Wells-Barnett 1892, 1893, 1894 PREFACE The greater part of what is contained in these pages was published in the New York Age June 25, 1892, in explanation of the editorial which the Memphis whites considered sufficiently infamous to justify the destruction of my paper, the Free Speech. Since the appearance of that statement, requests have come from all parts of the country that Exiled (the name under which it then appeared) be issued in...»

«Out of Bounds LOUIS MICHAEL SEIDMAN* Lawrence v. Texas creates a crisis for inclusive constitutionalism. Too often, advocates of inclusion and tolerance wish to include only those ideas and groups with which they agree. The test for true inclusion and tolerance, however, is whether we are willing to protect groups when they engage in conduct of which we disapprove. It follows that the boundaries of inclusion cannot be established simply by moral argument; yet, any plausible version of...»

«Navigating Complex Identities of Victim-Perpetrators in Reparation Mechanisms Dr Luke Moffett School of Law, Queen’s University Belfast l.moffett@qub.ac.uk Abstract Reparations over the past few decades have become integral in responding to mass victimisation and conflict in international law and transitional justice. Although the development of reparations in transitional justice has been framed around abusive authoritarian regimes and repairing the harm suffered by civilians, such as in...»

«International Humanitarian Law Handbook for Parliamentarians N° 25 © Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU) and International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) 2016 This publication is co-published by IPU and the ICRC. For personal and non-commercial use, all or parts of this publication may be reproduced on condition that copyright and source indications are also copied and no modifications are made. Please inform the Inter-Parliamentary Union on the usage of the publication content. Layout:...»

«WALTERS.WL (DO NOT DELETE) 8/9/2010 11:35 AM WORTH THE TOLL? THE DORMANT COMMERCE CLAUSE’S EFFECT ON STATUTORY TOLLING BASED ON A DEFENDANT’S ABSENCE FROM THE STATE IN TEXAS AND OTHER STATES Ryan Walters* I. INTRODUCTION Statutes of limitation are a fundamental part of any modern legal system.1 They also have a long pedigree, making their appearance in both the American and English legal systems as early as the seventeenth century.2 Black’s Law Dictionary defines a statute of limitations...»

«Audit Report Beneficiaries Serving as Representative Payees Who Have a Representative Payee A-09-16-50109 | August 2016 MEMORANDUM Date: Refer To: August 10, 2016 To: The Commissioner From: Acting Inspector General Subject: Beneficiaries Serving as Representative Payees Who Have a Representative Payee (A-09-16The attached final report presents the results of the Office of Audit’s review. The objective was to determine whether the Social Security Administration had adequate controls to prevent...»

«UG Alumni E-News Greetings from the University of Guyana! January March 2009 Bulletin No. 1, 2009 UNIVERSITY of GUYANA Turkeyen Campus Visit the University of Guyana website, http://www.uog.edu.gy/ Facts about UG – University of Guyana Library The University of Guyana Library was established in April 1963. The Library is a dual campus entity like its parent institution, the University of Guyana. The main and longer established library is situated at Turkeyen, Greater Georgetown while the...»

«Putinization of Georgia: Georgian Media after the Rose Revolution Media in Georgia 2003-2007 The Human Rights Centre (HRIDC) is a non-governmental human rights organization, without any political or religious affiliations. The purpose of HRIDC is to increase respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms in Georgia, as well as to contribute to the democratic development of the country. HRIDC implements projects to ensure compliance with human rights laws and standards. We cooperate with...»

«Information Repor t by the Federal Government on the I m p a c t of the Act Regulating the Legal Situation of Prostitutes (Prostitution Act) Repor t by the Federal Government on the I m p a c t of the Act Regulating the Legal Situation of Prostitutes (Prostitution Act)  Table of contents A. Introduction............................................................ A.I. Mandate for the Report..........................»

«Rapport d’étude (version finale) Diagnostic agraire et commercialisation des semences dans la zone du projet SOA (Structuration des Orientations Agricoles) Sud de Madagascar Patrick RASOLOFO Léa RASOLOFOSON-RAJAONAH Nathalie RABEMALANTO Janvier 2014 Les appellations employées dans ce produit d' information et la présentation des données qui y figurent n'impliquent aucune prise de position de la part de l' Organisation des Nations Unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture (FAO ) quant au...»

«Available online www.jocpr.com Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2015, 7(3):95-101 ISSN : 0975-7384 Research Article CODEN(USA) : JCPRC5 Isolation, characterization and antimicrobial activity of Lactobacillus species (K 3) from fermented toddy of Cocus nucifera M. Krishna Moorthy*1, Bijaya Kumar Nayak2 and Anima Nanda1 Faculty of Bio and Chemical Engineering, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Sathyabama University, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India Department of Plant Science & Plant...»

«Alternative Traditions by Sangharakshita Windhorse Publications © Sangharakshita 1980 ISBN 978-0-904766-22-6 To enable text searching, this web edition has been prepared without the Pali and Sanskrit diacritics that appear in the paper version. www.windhorsepublications.com Contents Preface Alternative Traditions Calling Home the Prodigal Son Hedonism and the Spiritual Life Patterns of Non-violence The Twain Shall Meet Religio-Nationalism in Sri Lanka The White Lotus Sutra in the West Zen Past...»

<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2017 www.abstract.dislib.info - Abstracts, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.