«United States Department of State Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs International Narcotics Control Strategy Report ...»
To counter the cocaine flow across the Atlantic Ocean into Africa and Europe, the Coast Guard continues to work with U.S. Africa Command (AFRICOM) to expand maritime training and operations for West African countries. In FY 2010, both the USCGC MOHAWK and the USS JOHN L. HALL with an embarked USCG LEDET conducted joint training, surveillance and law enforcement operations off West Africa. During these operations MOHAWK embarked law enforcement teams from Sierra Leone, Nigeria and Senegal to conduct training and assist in their efforts to suppress illicit transnational maritime activity. These efforts continue to help African nations to gain control of their jurisdictional waters by maritime domain awareness as they attempt to thwart the growing threat from DTOs and other transnational criminals.
A previously established trilateral maritime counterdrug initiative between the United States, Colombia and Ecuador has matured into a semi-annual multilateral maritime counterdrug enforcement coordination INCSR 2011 Volume 1 U.S. Coast Guard summit, which now includes Panama, El Salvador, Nicaragua and Mexico. The seventh and eighth Multilateral Summit (held in Panama City, Panama and San Diego, California respectively in 2010) gave participants the opportunity to share, exchange, and improve ―best practices,‖ and to think creatively about employing new tactics, techniques, and procedures to counter drug trafficking organizations.
International Training and Technical Assistance:
In FY 2010, the USCG provided International Training and Technical Assistance in support of drug
interdiction programs through a variety of support efforts:
The USCG Technical Assistance Field Team (TAFT) provided engineering expertise, vessel assessments, and major repair contracting services to the maritime services of the countries in the Eastern Caribbean‘s Regional Security System (RSS). USCG ships conducted training and technical assistance in conjunction with normal operations in several countries to encourage operational cooperation The USCG‘s Security Assistance Program offers a progression of one-to-two-week mobile training teams (MTTs) to partner nation maritime services around the world to help advance the capability of their naval and coast guard forces to patrol their territorial waters. Courses include Maritime Law Enforcement (MLE), Boarding and Advanced Boarding Officer, Joint MLE Boarding, MLE Instructor, Basic and Advanced Port Security/ Port Vulnerability, Waterside Port Security, and Small Boat Operations/Maintenance Courses. In FY 2010, the USCG deployed 108 MTTs to 48 countries.
Individual students also receive instruction in USCG resident training programs in the United States.
These students develop a broad range of skills from boat handling and boat and engine repair to senior officer leadership training. In FY 2010, 66 partner nations enrolled students in 308 resident courses at USCG training installations.
INCSR 2011 Volume 1 Chemical Controls
U.S. Customs and Border Protection The Department of Homeland Security‘s U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) processes all goods, vehicles, and people entering and exiting the United States. CBP officers intercept narcotics and other contraband, improperly classified merchandise, unlicensed technology and material, weapons, ammunition, fugitives, undocumented immigrants, and unreported currency at America‘s 331 international ports of entry.
Since its creation in its current organizational structure in 2003, CBP is also charged with the border regulatory functions of passport control and agriculture inspections in order to provide comprehensive, seamless border control services. This division of responsibilities is intended to simplify border security operations and is termed: "One face at the border." Of current importance is CBP‘s role in protecting the borders of the United States from the introduction of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and terrorists.
CBP also maintains its position as the nation‘s first line of defense against the introduction of narcotics and dangerous drugs from foreign sources.
CBP Representatives and Attachés CBP deploys a growing network of Attachés and Representatives who serve abroad in U.S. Embassies and consulates. These personnel work closely with CBP‘s foreign counterparts in the on-going effort to counter drug-smuggling. Attachés have a broad mandate, ranging from enforcement and investigative activities on behalf of CBP to serving as delegates in such groups as the Shared Border Accords Coordinating Committee (SBACC) in Canada. They also exchange expert information, improving the effectiveness of law enforcement activity, policies, and resources relating to border enforcement. Their efforts help to ensure that enforcement cooperation is seamless across borders and that the battle against smuggling is effective.
International Training and Assistance In 2010, CBP Office of International Affairs (INA) provided technical training and assistance in support of the International Law Enforcement Academy (ILEA) programs currently operating in Bangkok, Budapest, Gaborone, San Salvador, and Lima. CBP supported ILEA programs by developing and conducting core and specialized training on a variety of topics, including: Land Border Interdiction;
Contraband Concealment Techniques; International Controlled Deliveries and Drug Investigations (conducted jointly with the Drug Enforcement Administration); Complex Financial Investigations (conducted jointly with Immigration and Customs Enforcement); and Customs Forensics Lab capabilities and techniques.
The CBP Field Operations Academy (FOA) supports International Training on two fronts: conducting Academy tours for foreign dignitaries and aiding various training missions abroad. Internationally, the FOA has assisted training in Egypt, Iraq, Afghanistan, Georgia, Ukraine, Lithuania, Estonia, Dominican Republic, and Honduras in support of drug interdiction efforts. Additionally, the FOA has conducted numerous briefings/tours of its facilities in the U.S. for the benefit of visiting foreign Customs and Border groups. Dignitaries from Kazakhstan, Bahrain, and Saudi Arabia were recently shown a variety of venues and scenarios, which included drug interdiction instruction.
Port Security Initiatives CBP implements a multi-layered, risk-based enforcement strategy designed to maximize security without causing economic disruption to U.S. trade. This strategy encompasses the following security programs in
the maritime environment:
The ―24-Hour‖ Manifest Rule INCSR 2011 Volume 1 Chemical Controls Container Security Initiative (CSI) Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C-TPAT) Use of Non-Intrusive Inspection (NII) Technology Automated Targeting System (ATS) National Targeting Center for Cargo (NTC-C) Importer Security Filing ―10+2‖:
CSI, announced in January 2002, addresses the threat to border security and global trade posed by the potential for terrorist use of a maritime container. This Initiative institutes a security regime to ensure that all containers posing a potential risk for terrorism are identified and inspected at foreign ports before they are placed on vessels destined for the United States. U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) stations teams of U.S. officers in foreign ports to work together with host foreign government counterparts to develop additional investigative leads related to the terrorist threat to cargo destined for the United States and to identify potentially high-risk shipments. Over 80% of maritime containerized cargo destined for the United States originates in or transits through a CSI port and is screened prior to being laden aboard a U.S. bound vessel. CSI is currently operational in fifty-eight (58) ports.
Customs Mutual Assistance Agreements:
CBP is the lead negotiator of Customs Mutual Assistance Agreements (CMAAs). CMAAs are negotiated with foreign governments and provide for mutual assistance in the enforcement of customs-related laws.
Under the provisions of U.S. CMAAs, CBP provides assistance to its foreign counterparts, and receives assistance from them in the exchange of information that facilitates the enforcement of each country‘s laws. The Agreements have a high level of flexibility that allow parties to quickly communicate concerns and requests to each other. Recent CMAA negotiations were held with Switzerland, Jamaica, and Algeria. The Algerian CMAA was signed in early 2010.
International Visitors Program:
The State Department‘s International Visitors Program (IVP) can provide an opportunity for foreign customs officials and other foreign officials working on contraband enforcement issues to consult with their U.S. counterparts and appropriate high level managers in CBP Headquarters. International visitors can also participate in on-site tours of selected U.S. ports and field sites to observe actual CBP operations.
The objectives of this program are:
To demonstrate CBP‘s efforts to prevent terrorists and terrorist weapons from entering the United States.
To show how such U.S. programs as the Container Security Initiative can extend U.S. borders by encouraging layered security that clearly benefits the U.S. and the cooperating countries.
To offer foreign decision makers the opportunity to discuss and explore with CBP experts finding a balance between legitimate trade and travel and the need for reinforced security.
To build international relationships and cooperation in support of global security through the use of consistent security standards worldwide.
To support international capacity building programs, and encourage the introduction of new, more effective methods and techniques.
In FY11 through January, IVP made arrangements for 518 visits for 3117 visitors. These visits were sponsored by the Department of State, Department of Defense, and U.S. Coast Guard, various State National Guard Units, U.S. Embassies and other components of the Department of Homeland Security.
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Port of Entry Interdiction Training:
The correct approach to border interdiction varies with border environments, i.e., land (IBIT), seaport (ISIT), rail (IRIT) and airport (IACIT). Training has been designed for the problems encountered and interdiction techniques useful for each type of operation. Each training class is normally five days in duration and is comprised of interactive classroom discussion and practical exercises using actual CBP border facilities. In addition to port of entry operations, CBP provides training in techniques used by smugglers who do not use official ports of entry to cross borders, but who attempt to smuggle contraband in lightly patrolled border crossing zones.
International Bulk Currency Smuggling:
With an increased enforcement focus on money laundering, organized criminals and terrorists have turned to bulk cash smuggling to move valuables across borders. Bulk Currency Smuggling training assists foreign government enforcement personnel in identifying techniques used by bulk currency smugglers.
Further, it helps them to design and implement programs to counter that threat, resulting in seizures of millions of dollars in the proceeds of crime.
Training in Host Countries Overseas Enforcement Training: The curriculum includes Border Enforcement Training, Supply Chain Security, Detection, Interdiction and Investigation; Concealment Methods, Bulk Currency Smuggling, False and Fraudulent Documents, Train-the-Trainer, Anti-Corruption, Targeting and Risk Management, Hazardous Materials, and X-ray Systems. These courses can also be conducted at foreign ports of entry.
They include both basic training and refresher training/mentoring abroad for graduates of training at U.S port facilities. Training combines formal classroom and field exercises. Although many courses focus on counter proliferation and terrorism, courses cover the gamut of issues faced by CBP and our foreign border control counterparts, including narcotics interdiction. CBP hopes that participation in this training will assist in establishing regional and global associations of border control officials who share concerns about transnational criminal networks and who will cooperate in their dismantling.
2010 Trends Chemicals play two essential roles in the production of illegal drugs: as starting chemical inputs for the production of synthetic drugs such as methamphetamine and MDMA (3,4methylenedioxmethamphetamine more commonly known under the name of ecstasy); and as refining agents and solvents for processing plant-based materials such as coca and opium poppy into drugs such as cocaine and heroin. Chemicals used in synthetic drug production are known as ―precursor‖ chemicals because they become incorporated into the drug product and are less likely to be substituted by other chemicals. Chemicals used to refine and process plant-based drugs are referred to as ―essential‖ chemicals and can be readily replaced by other chemicals with similar properties. Both sets of chemicals are often referred to as ―precursor chemicals and for the sake of brevity, this term is used interchangeably for both categories throughout this report.
In 2010 the United States and other nations continued to focus on preventing diversion of precursor chemicals. International partners redoubled their efforts to target chemicals used in methamphetamine production as well as continued to target those used in in heroin and cocaine. Regional and multilateral cooperative efforts are critical in this regard. The result has been to force traffickers to use non-traditional routes and methods. These efforts built on a variety of bilateral, regional and multilateral mechanisms, such as the United Nations and the Organization of American States.
Methamphetamine. Global abuse of amphetamines increased in every region of the world with the exception of parts of Western Europe where authorities believe that it may have stabilized. For the first time in several years, methamphetamine use may have increased—although only slightly—in the United States. Moreover, production of methamphetamine continues to rise in this hemisphere as well as in Asia.