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«United States Department of State Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs International Narcotics Control Strategy Report ...»

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United States Department of State

Bureau for International Narcotics and Law

Enforcement Affairs

International

Narcotics Control

Strategy Report

Volume I

Drug and Chemical

Control

March 2011

INCSR 2011 Volume 1 Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Volume I

Introduction

Legislative Basis for the INCSR

Presidential Det ermination

Policy and Program Developments

Overview for 2010

Demand Reduction

Methodology for USG Estimates of Illegal Drug Production

Worldwide Illicit Drug Cultivation

Worldwide Potential Illicit Drug Production

Parties to the 1988 UN Convention

USG Assistance

Department of State (INL) Budget

International Training

International Law Enforcement Academies (ILEAs)

Drug Enforcement Administration

United States Coast Guard

U.S. Customs and Border Prot ection

Chemical Controls

2010 Trends

Precursors and Essential Chemicals

Major Chemical Source Countries and Territories

Significant Illicit Drug Manufacturing Countries

Multilateral Efforts to Target Methamphetamine Chemicals

INCB Tables on Licit Requirements

Country Reports

Afghanistan

Albania

Algeria

Angola

Argentina

Armenia

Azerbaijan

The Bahamas

Bangladesh

Belgium

Belize

Benin

Bolivia

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Brazil

Bulgaria

Burkina Faso

Burma

Cambodia

Canada

i INCSR 2011 Volume 1 Table of Contents Chad

Cape Verde

Chile

China

Colombia

Congo, Democratic Republic of

Costa Rica

Croatia

Cuba

Dominican Republic

Dutch Caribbean

Eastern Caribbean

Ecuador

Egypt

El Salvador

Estonia

Ethiopia

Franc e

Frenc h Caribbean

Georgia

Germany

Ghana

Guatemala

Guinea

Guinea-Bissau

Guyana

Haiti

Honduras

Hong Kong

India

Indonesia

Iran

Iraq

Israel

Italy

Jamaica

Japan

Jordan

Kazakhstan

Kenya

Kosovo

Kyrgyz Republic

Laos

Lebanon

Liberia

Libya

Macedonia

Malaysia

Mali

Maurutania

Mauritius

Mexico

Moldova

Montenegro

Morocco

Mozambique

ii

INCSR 2011 Volume 1 Table of Contents

Nepal

The Netherlands

Nicaragua

Niger

Nigeria

Nort h Korea

Pakistan

Panama

Paraguay

Peru

Philippines

Portugal

Russia

Saudi Arabia

Senegal

Serbia

Seychelles

Sierra Leone

Singapore

Somalia

South Africa

South Korea

Spain

Sri Lanka

Sudan

Suriname

Switzerland

Taiwan

Tajikistan

Tanzania

Thailand

Timor-Leste

Togo

Trinidad and Tobago

Turkey

Turkmenistan

United Arab Emirates

Uganda

Ukraine

United Kingdom

Uruguay

Uzbekistan

Venezuela

Vietnam

Zambia

–  –  –

International Agreements 1988 UN Drug Convention—United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, 1988 UN Single Drug Convention—United Nations Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961 as amended by the 1972 Protocol UN Psychotropic Substances Convention—United Nations Convention on Psychotropic Substances, 1971 UNCAC–UN Convention against Corruption

UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime—and its supplementing protocols:

Trafficking in Persons Protocol—Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime Migrant Smuggling Protocol—Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Air and Sea, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime Firearms Protocol—Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime

–  –  –

Legislative Basis for the INCSR The Department of State‘s International Narcotics Control Strategy Report (INCSR) has been prepared in accordance with section 489 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended (the "FAA," 22 U.S.C. § 2291). The 2011 INCSR, published in March 2011, covers the year January 1 to December 31, 2010 and is published in two volumes, the second of which covers money laundering and financial crimes. In addition to addressing the reporting requirements of section 489 of the FAA (as well as sections 481(d)(2) and 484(c) of the FAA and section 804 of the Narcotics Control Trade Act of 1974, as amended), the INCSR provides the factual basis for the designations contained in the President‘s report to Congress on the major drug-transit or major illicit drug producing countries initially set forth in section 591 of the Kenneth M. Ludden Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2002 (P.L. 107-115) (the "FOAA"), and now made permanent pursuant to section 706 of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 2003 (P.L. 107-228) (the "FRAA").





Section 706 of the FRAA requires that the President submit an annual report no later than September 15 identifying each country determined by the President to be a major drug-transit country or major illicit drug producing country. The President is also required in that report to identify any country on the majors list that has "failed demonstrably... to make substantial efforts" during the previous 12 months to adhere to international counternarcotics agreements and to take certain counternarcotics measures set forth in U.S. law. U.S. assistance under the current foreign operations appropriations act may not be provided to any country designated as having "failed demonstrably" unless the President determines that the provision of such assistance is vital to U.S. national interests or that the country, at any time after the President‘s initial report to Congress, has made "substantial efforts" to comply with the counternarcotics conditions in the legislation. This prohibition does not affect humanitarian, counternarcotics, and certain other types of assistance that are authorized to be provided notwithstanding any other provision of law.

The FAA requires a report on the extent to which each country or entity that received assistance under chapter 8 of Part I of the Foreign Assistance Act in the past two fiscal years has "met the goals and objectives of the United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances" (the "1988 UN Drug Convention"). FAA § 489(a)(1)(A).

Several years ago, pursuant to The Combat Methamphetamine Enforcement Act (CMEA) (The USA Patriot Improvement and Reauthorization Act 2005, Title VII, P.L. 109-177), amending sections 489 and 490 of the Foreign Assistance Act (22 USC 2291h and 2291) section 722, the INCSR was expanded to include reporting on the five countries that export the largest amounts of methamphetamine precursor chemicals, as well as the five countries importing the largest amounts of these chemicals and which have the highest rate of diversion of the chemicals for methamphetamine production. This expanded reporting, which also appears in this year‘s INCSR and will appear in each subsequent annual INCSR report, also includes additional information on efforts to control methamphetamine precursor chemicals, as well as estimates of legitimate demand for these methamphetamine precursors, prepared by most parties to the 1988 UN Drug Convention and submitted to the International Narcotics Control Board. The CMEA also requires a Presidential determination by March 1 of each year on whether the five countries that legally exported and the five countries that legally imported the largest amount of precursor chemicals (under FAA section 490) have cooperated with the United States to prevent these substances from being used to produce methamphetamine or have taken adequate steps on their own to achieve full compliance with the 1988 UN Drug Control Convention. This determination may be exercised by the Secretary of State pursuant to Executive Order 12163 and by the Deputy Secretary of State pursuant to State Department Delegation of Authority 245.

INCSR 2011 Volume 1 Introduction

Although the Convention does not contain a list of goals and objectives, it does set forth a number of obligations that the parties agree to undertake. Generally speaking, it requires the parties to take legal measures to outlaw and punish all forms of illicit drug production, trafficking, and drug money laundering, to control chemicals that can be used to process illicit drugs, and to cooperate in international efforts to these ends. The statute lists actions by foreign countries on the following issues as relevant to evaluating performance under the 1988 UN Drug Convention: illicit cultivation, production, distribution, sale, transport and financing, and money laundering, asset seizure, extradition, mutual legal assistance, law enforcement and transit cooperation, precursor chemical control, and demand reduction.

In attempting to evaluate whether countries and certain entities are meeting the goals and objectives of the 1988 UN Drug Convention, the Department has used the best information it has available. The 2011 INCSR covers countries that range from major drug producing and drug-transit countries, where drug control is a critical element of national policy, to small countries or entities where drug issues or the capacity to deal with them are minimal. The reports vary in the extent of their coverage. For key drugcontrol countries, where considerable information is available, we have provided comprehensive reports.

For some smaller countries or entities where only limited information is available, we have included whatever data the responsible post could provide.

The country chapters report upon actions taken - including plans, programs, and, where applicable, timetables - toward fulfillment of Convention obligations. Because the 1988 UN Drug Convention‘s subject matter is so broad and availability of information on elements related to performance under the Convention varies widely within and among countries, the Department‘s views on the extent to which a given country or entity is meeting the goals and objectives of the Convention are based on the overall response of the country or entity to those goals and objectives. Reports will often include discussion of foreign legal and regulatory structures. Although the Department strives to provide accurate information, this report should not be used as the basis for determining legal rights or obligations under U.S. or foreign law.

Some countries and other entities are not yet parties to the 1988 UN Drug Convention; some do not have status in the United Nations and cannot become parties. For such countries or entities, we have nonetheless considered actions taken by those countries or entities in areas covered by the Convention as well as plans (if any) for becoming parties and for bringing their legislation into conformity with the Convention‘s requirements. Other countries have taken reservations, declarations, or understandings to the 1988 UN Drug Convention or other relevant treaties; such reservations, declarations, or understandings are generally not detailed in this report. For some of the smallest countries or entities that have not been designated by the President as major illicit drug producing or major drug-transit countries, the Department has insufficient information to make a judgment as to whether the goals and objectives of the Convention are being met. Unless otherwise noted in the relevant country chapters, the Department‘s Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs (INL) considers all countries and other entities with which the United States has bilateral narcotics agreements to be meeting the goals and objectives of those agreements.

Information concerning counternarcotics assistance is provided, pursuant to section 489(b) of the FAA, in section entitled "U.S. Government Assistance."

Major Illicit Drug Producing, Drug-Transit, Significant Source, Precursor Chemical, and Money Laundering Countries

Section 489(a)(3) of the FAA requires the INCSR to identify:

–  –  –

(A) major illicit drug producing and major drug-transit countries;

(B) major sources of precursor chemicals used in the production of illicit narcotics; or (C) major money laundering countries.

These countries are identified below.

Major Illicit Drug Producing and Major Drug-Transit Countries

A major illicit drug producing country is one in which:

(A) 1,000 hectares or more of illicit opium poppy is cultivated or harvested during a year;

(B) 1,000 hectares or more of illicit coca is cultivated or harvested during a year; or (C) 5,000 hectares or more of illicit cannabis is cultivated or harvested during a year, unless the President determines that such illicit cannabis production does not significantly affect the United States. FAA § 481(e)(2).

A major drug-transit country is one:

(A) that is a significant direct source of illicit narcotic or psychotropic drugs or other controlled substances significantly affecting the United States; or (B) through which are transported such drugs or substances. FAA § 481(e)(5).

The following major illicit drug producing and/or drug-transit countries were identified and notified to Congress by the President on September 15, 2010, consistent with section 706(1) of the Foreign Relations

Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 2003 (Public Law 107-228):

Afghanistan, The Bahamas, Bolivia, Burma, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, India, Jamaica, Laos, Mexico, Nicaragua, Pakistan, Panama, Peru, and Venezuela.



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