«Published Annually Vol. 6, No. 1 ISBN 978-0-979-7593-3-8 CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS Sawyer School of Business, Suffolk University, Boston, Massachusetts ...»
The issue with many companies is that their organization put many efforts to attract employees to their company, but spend very less time to develop and retain the talent. A capacity development by talent management must be worked into business strategy and should be implemented as a daily routine throughout the company as a whole. It is not only the job of human resource department to acquire and retain the talented personnel but also it must be practiced at all levels of the organizations. The business strategy must include that the line managers should be responsible to develop the skills of their immediate subordinates.
Similarly the senior managers should mentor the line managers and the top level managers should retain their talented middle level managers by succession plans and fast track promotions. Talented employees should be trained to build up their potentials so as it can be channelized to attain organizational goals.
The whole idea of capacity development by talent management is complemented when the talent is retained in an organization. The talent can be retained if it is noticed, recognized and nurtured carefully.
Once the talented employees are retained then this asset is remarkable for the success of an organization.
Due to cut throat competition in the era of Globalization wherein there is emphasis on customer care and paradigm shifts in information technology as well as information technology enabled services necessitated the organizations to focus on management of skilled employees, talented workers and knowledge workers.
Corporate and HR professionals are busy devising new and innovative management practices and ideas towards keeping their personnel motivated, satisfied and always available for giving their best efforts towards achieving organizational goals and objectives. Keeping the above in view new ideas and practices, have been developed and are in practice in organization for example fast track promotions, challenging tasks are assigned and they are awarded special remuneration, the key players are given the responsibility of business partner so as to retain and motivate the best talents.
The top management has a very important role in capacity development by talent Management. Their communication is essential and their trust to the talents is also very important. The organizations do not hire new employees, but the recognized talents are always welcome. The organizations, which empower their talents, have a better chance to go through the recession successfully with the new evolving leaders. The talents know about their qualities and when they feel a possibility to develop their skills and competencies, they will look for the opportunity to show their potential in other organization. This is a task for Human Resources to support the role of the Talent Management and to show the connection of the Capacity development by talent management.
Conference papers © Knowledge Globalization Institute, Pune, India, 2012 REFERENCES  K. Ellis, “The Mindset That Matters Most: Linking Learning to the Business,” Training (May 2005): 38-43.  Thomas and S. Cantrell. 2002. The mysterious art and science of Knowledge-worker performance. MIT Sloan Management Review 44, no. 1:23-30.
 A. H. Maslow ‘A Theory of Human Motivation,” Psychological Reports 50 (1943): 370-96;C.P. Alderfer, “
An Empirical Test of a New Theory of Human Needs,” Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 4 (1969):
142-75  Fegley, S. (2006).2006 Talent Management survey report. Alexandria, VA: Society for Human Resource Management w, December, 63-69.
 Lengnick-Hall, M.L. and Andrade, L.S. (2008). Talent staffing systems for effective knowledge management. In V. Vaiman and C.V. Vance (eds) Smart Talent Management- Building Knowledge Assets for Competitive Advantage. 33-65 Elgar Publishing, UK.
 Hills, A. (2009). Succession Planning - or smart Talent Management? Industrial and Commercial Training.41 (1).3-8  Covey, R.S. (1999). Seven Habits of Highly Effective People. Simon & Schuster.
 Jones, R. (2008). Social capital: bridging the link between Talent Management and knowledge management. In V. Vaiman and C.M. Vance (eds) Smart Talent Management- Building Knowledge Assets for Competitive Advantage. 217- 233.Elgar Publishing.
Conference papers © Knowledge Globalization Institute, Pune, India, 2012 Perceived Importance of Job Analysis Impacting Motivation and Competencies Among Blue And White Collar Employees
The study explored perceptual differences of job analyses significance within blue-collar employees (BCEs) and white-collar employees (WCEs) in a manufacturing firm. Data were obtained based on structured questionnaire. Results indicated significant positive relationship of performance appraisal with competencies in case of white collar employees. Conversely, training was positively related to competencies with regard to blue collar employees. Other dimensions including selection process, rewards and job description have no relationship with motivation and competencies. The findings commend that investigating these dimensions in similar or different manufacturing settings might provide firms with the potent to improve motivation and competencies significantly.
Keywords: Job analysis, performance appraisal, training, motivation, competencies.
Job analysis is the most useful tools for gathering information and developing content valid and legally defensible selection procedures for a wide variety of jobs (Harvey, 1991). A fundamental assumption of traditional job analysis is that the information about a job as it presently exists is useful for developing selection procedures because the job will be similar in the future (Schneider & Konz, 1989). Unfortunately, current trends in organizations (e.g. downsizing and reorganization) often result in the creation of new or re-designed jobs (Howard, 1995). In these situations, the assumption of job stability may often be untenable and traditional job analysis techniques may neither be possible nor be appropriate. As a result, there is a need for job analyst to develop new methods for identifying the key tasks and the knowledge, skills and abilities (KSAOs) that are required for jobs that are changing (Landy et al. 1995). Broadly defined, job analysis involves collecting data about observable job behaviors, and delineating the knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics needed to perform the job (Cascio & Aguinis, 2005).
Strategic job analysis is a systematic process of identifying and describing the important aspects of a job and the characteristics a worker needs to do his or her job well (Phillips & Gully, 2009). It ensures that randomness is reduced and learning or behavioral change takes place in structured format. Employee selection is the process of putting right person on right job. It is a procedure of matching organizational requirements with the skills and qualifications of people.
Resource Management at the School of Business, North South University, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Effective selection can be done only when there is effective matching. Competencies are the measurable or observable knowledge, skills, abilities, and behaviors critical to successful job performance (Mullen, 2005). Choosing the right competencies allow employers to plan how they will organize and develop their workforce, determine which job best fits their business needs, recruit and select the best employees, manage and train employees effectively and develop staff to fill future job performance.
_________ 1 A.K.M. Mominul Haque Talukder is a Senior Lecturer of Organizational Behavior and Human Conference papers © Knowledge Globalization Institute, Pune, India, 2012 The research focuses on factors affecting perceptual differences of job analysis in a manufacturing company of Bangladesh.
Aspects like performance appraisal, reward, training, job description, selection process, motivation and competency are linked with the success of a company and interdependent on each other for initiating and sustaining a company‟ s success. The objective of the study is to carry out a quantitative study of how the company is affected by the perceptual variation of two cohorts e.g., blue collar employees and white collar employees and subsequently moderate job analysis. The antecedents of job analysis would influence motivation while leveraging human capital. As well as the study would contribute to the existing literature and put forward new direction to manage human resources.
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
Bitter and Gardner (1995) reported the tendency of supervisors to attribute the cause of poor performance to low motivation.
Motivation represents an employee‟ s desire and commitment to perform and is manifested in job related effort. It is the factor that keeps the human active and makes them feel good about their job. Competency is the combination of knowledge, skills and behavior used to improve performance; or is the state or quality of being adequately or well qualified, having the ability to perform a specific role. Motivation is a driving force behind a successful employee. If there is no motivation employee might lose enthusiasm. If manager‟ s assessment is incorrect and poor performance is related to ability rather than motivation, the response to increased pressure will worsen the problem. If poor performers feel that management is insensitive to their problemsthat they lack resources, adequate training, or realistic time schedules-they may respond counterproductively to any tactics aimed at increasing their efforts. Motivation is important not only to increase productivity but also to elevate competencies of employees in the organizations.
The use of competencies to identify high-performing people, or outstanding employees, has gradually become widespread in human resource management (Lawler, 1994; Ulrich, 1997). Those characteristics that set these employees apart provide the basis for recruitment, selection, and development strategies that are effective and provide a high return on investment. In rapidly changing business environments, organizations are recognizing the value of a workforce that is not only highly skilled and technically adept, but more importantly, a workforce that can learn quickly, adapt to change, communicate effectively, and foster interpersonal relationships. These characteristics, or competencies, are critical to organizational survival, productivity, and continual improvement. Using competencies as the basis for staffing provides the flexibility needed to select and place individuals where they can best serve the organization. One of the strengths of competency models is that they are often linked to the business goals and strategies of the organization (Rodriguez et al. 2002). As scholars (Howard & Cascio, 1996) have indicated, the changing nature of work requires evaluating worker competencies that are different from those evaluated in the past. Predictions are that work will become more difficult, more fluid, and more interconnected. As a result, the competencies needed by future workers will change. Intellect will be a necessary but not sufficient requirement. Employees will need to be smart, to be able to learn and grow, but at the same time be adaptable, responsible, and able to work with others.
2.1 Performance Appraisal
Performance appraisal is a process that identifies, evaluates and develops employee performance to meet employee and organizational goal. It focuses on employee‟ s performance improvement. It is the process of obtaining, analyzing, and recording information about the relative worth of an employee to the organization. Periodic reviews help supervisors gain a better understanding of each employee's abilities. The goal of the review process is to recognize achievement, to evaluate job progress, and then to design training for the further development of skills and strengths. Performance appraisal typically involves measuring how well an individual employee is doing their job against a set of criteria. It also helps to judge who need promotion, training and so forth. Dowling et al. (1999) state that international performance management is a strategic HRM process that enables the MNCs to evaluate and continuously improve individual, subsidiary unit and corporate performance against clearly defined, pre-set objectives that are directly linked to international strategy. Performance appraisal is considered as one of several key elements of performance management. Cardy and Dobbins (1994) define performance appraisal as the process of identifying, observing, measuring and developing human resources in organizations. An effective performance appraisal system encourages individual performance by reinforcing organizational objectives. This is accomplished by establishing personal performance objectives that are congruent with overall organizational goals. In turn then, encouraging individual performance through performance appraisal promotes overall organizational performance (Katsanis, Laurin, & Pitta, 1996).
Performance appraisal is an important process for influencing both the extrinsic and intrinsic motivations of employees and their attitudes towards companies. Thus it can be proposed that, Proposition 1: Perception of effective performance appraisal practice is positively related to motivation and competencies within WCEs and BCEs.
Conference papers © Knowledge Globalization Institute, Pune, India, 2012
2.2 Rewards Rewards, compensation and benefits are critical organizational tools whose sphere of influence reaches beyond the periphery of the individual processes. This reward is a key factor which helps employers motivates employee performances (Stone, 2002). Rewards Program is designed to encourage employees to make a performance difference either individually or through teams. Taking time to recognize achievements helps staff to understand how their performance contributes to the overall objectives of the organization. Reward systems can a number of HR processes and practices, which in turn impact on organizational performance (Lewis, 2006). Rewards impact recruitment and retention (Guthrie, 2007). High wages attract more applicants, which allows greater choice over selection and hiring decisions, which in turn may reduce labor turnover (Lawler, 2000). The way in which employees are rewarded has a major influence on corporate culture. For example, reward systems that provide benefits for long-serving staff are likely to shape the existing culture into one in which loyalty is seen as central to the corporate ideology. Employees see reward systems as signaling the importance the employer places on various activities or behaviors.
Therefore, reward systems have a motivational impact and must be integrated with the corporate behavior being sought. So, it can be proposed that, Proposition 2: Rewards are positively related to motivation and competencies within WCEs and BCEs.
2.3 Training Training and employee development are vital contributors to organizational success and will continue to be so in the foreseeable future. Changes in economic forces and globalization point to the importance of human resources and skilled “knowledge workers” as key sources of sustainable competitive advantage (Drucker, 1999). Every indication is that the need for training will continue given increasing demands on organizations to boost productivity, keep pace with technological advances, meet competitive pressures, use team-based decision making and problem solving, reengineer processes, and satisfy employee development and retention requirements. With this emphasis on learning and skill development, employers hope expenditures will yield a favorable return on their investment. Studies suggest that many training and development activities are implemented on blind faith in the hope that they will produce results (Arthur et al., 2003; Robinson & Robinson, 1989). One study found that employers who were in the top quartile of their peers relative to the average training expenditure per employee experienced 24 percent higher-gross profit margins, 218 percent higher income generation per employee, and a 26 percent higher price-to-book value of company stock price relative to those employers in the bottom quartile (Wells, 2001). Thus, it can be proposed that, Proposition 3: Training is positively related to motivation and competencies within WCEs and BCEs.
2.4 Job Description Job descriptions are lists of the general tasks, or functions, and responsibilities of a position (McNamara, 2000). Typically, they include to whom the position reports, specifications such as the qualifications needed by the person in the job, salary range for the position, etc. Job descriptions are usually developed by conducting a job analysis, which includes examining the tasks and sequences of tasks necessary to perform the job. The analysis looks at the areas of knowledge and skills needed by the job. Typically, job descriptions are used especially for advertising to fill an open position, determining compensation and as a basis for performance reviews. Not everyone believes that job descriptions are highly useful. A job description is usually developed by conducting a job analysis, which includes examining the tasks and sequences of tasks necessary to perform the job. The analysis considers the areas of knowledge and skills needed for the job. Job descriptions help employees understand the tasks for which they are accountable so they can prioritize their work based on which duties are more critical than others.
Moreover, a manager can compare an employee's performance with the job description's standards and suggest specific tasks the employee can perform better. Employers decide how much to pay employees by determining the monetary worth of their professional abilities and responsibilities. Job descriptions allow employees to reflect on their own work and ensure they are meeting a company's standards prior to undergoing a performance review with a manager. Job descriptions give managers the standards they should look for when hiring new employees. Employers typically include full job descriptions in job postings to attract qualified candidates. Companies use job descriptions to help plan which positions they can trim through a layoff or how to change the structure of a business, which affects employees' job duties. Therefore, it can be proposed that, Proposition 4: An appropriate job description is positively related to motivation andcompetencies within WCEs and BCEs.
Conference papers © Knowledge Globalization Institute, Pune, India, 2012
2.5 Selection Process Employee selection is the process of putting right person on right job. It is a procedure of matching organizational requirements with the skills and qualifications of people. Effective selection can be done only when there is effective matching.
By selecting best candidate for the required job, the organization will get quality performance of employees. Moreover, organization will experience less of absenteeism and employee turnover problems. By selecting right candidate for the required job, organization will also save time and money. Proper screening of candidates takes place during selection procedure.
Selection process helps an organization to effectively select the right people for the organization. It is very important for the recruitment process to be unbiased, free of discrimination and to maintain equity. A good selection process reduces the cost of re-recruitment. So, it‟ s a vital part of an organization. Successful organizations of the future will attract, engage, develop, and retain the best and brightest employees. Success will belong to those organizations who define return on investment not only in terms of profit and loss but also as the development and aggregation of human and intellectual capital (Rich, 2000). Therefore, it can be proposed that, Proposition 5: Right and timely selection process is positively related to motivation and competencies within WCEs and BCEs.
Most research studies have an explicit or implicit theory, which describes, explains, predicts or controls the phenomenon under study. Theories are linked to conceptual models and frameworks; whereas a conceptual model is more
than a theory and a theory may be derived from a model, the framework is derived deductively from the theory (Burns & Groves, 2001). A model is developed (Figure 1) which is derived from the review of the literature by integrating theory and research relating to different components of strategic job analysis and competency. It includes performance appraisal, rewards, training, job description, and selection process as independent variables and their relationship with motivation and competencies of the employee as dependent variables.
Sample size was 100 including white-collar employees‟ body of segment head in the factory (top level), officers (mid level) and the technicians (frontline) from the white-collar employees (WCEs) and blue-collar employees (BCEs) altogether. Participants were the current employees of RAHIMAFROOZ, a leading battery manufacturer in Bangladesh. Of them, 50 were from WCEs and 50 were from BCEs. As this is a production firm so as most of the employees were male. Employees‟ age ranges from 34 years to 50 years. The average tenure of their job was 5 years and the lowest was 1 year. Questionnaire was divided into seven sections and designed to be scale rated. The items of each section were in the form of statements that were direct, simple and concise. The participants had to tick in the boxes provided beside each item according to the extent of their agreement (scale provided at the beginning of the questionnaire). Scale rating provided was: 1=„Strongly Disagree‟, 2=„Disagree‟ 3=„Neutral‟, 4=„Agree‟,
Conference papers © Knowledge Globalization Institute, Pune, India, 2012
5=„Strongly Agree‟. The dependent variables are motivation and competencies and independent are performance appraisal, rewards, training, job description, and selection process. Data obtained is analyzed with SPSS for Windows 11.5. To measure the reliability of the survey tool, Cronbach‟ s alpha value was calculated. In order to test the hypotheses the analyses of Pearson Correlation and linear regression were used.
After obtaining data, reliability test (Table 1a, 1b) was conducted. This helped to know the degree to which the items in each section were consistent with each other. This is vital as reliability is a prerequisite for validity which is a measure for the degree of relation between the items assessed and actual results. By considering an alpha value of 0.8 and above, inconsistent items in the questionnaire were eliminated and the reliability test was rerun via factor analysis. The reason for such high alpha value for the other variables may have been due to the consistency in the results for each item which ranged from neutral (3) to agree (4) in most cases. Factor Analysis using data reduction was carried out to eliminate the inconsistent items with low coefficient values and to have alpha value greater than 0.8.
5.1 Descriptive Statistics The mean value of each variable (Table 1a, 1b) shows that results varied mostly from „Neutral‟ to „Agree‟. Either for WCEs and BCEs, performance appraisal has the highest mean of 4.6 with the least standard deviation, and competencies as 4.1 with the highest standard deviation of 0.82. This shows that WCEs and BCEs are keener on their achievements being recognized and are highly motivated and driven to work harder. This also gives both cohorts a feeling of belongingness and pushes them to strive harder in their job.
Table 1a. Mean, standard deviations, correlations and reliabilities of WCEs
Proposition 1 (Table 1a, 1b) states that perception of effective performance appraisal practice is positively related to motivation and competencies within WCEs and BCEs. As displays across table 1a & 1b that performance appraisal is significantly positively related with competencies (r=.43**) alone but not with motivation with regard to WCEs and it has no relationship either competencies or motivation with regard to BCEs. Proposition 1 is partially accepted. Proposition 2 states that rewards are positively related to motivation and competencies within WCEs and BCEs. Rewards have no relationship either with motivation or competencies with regard to both cohorts. Thus the proposition is rejected.
Conference papers © Knowledge Globalization Institute, Pune, India, 2012 Table 1b. Mean, standard deviations, correlations and reliabilities of BCEs Proposition 3 states that training is positively related to motivation and competencies within WCEs and BCEs. Job descriptions have no relationship either with motivation or competencies with regard to both cohorts. Thus the proposition is rejected.
Proposition 4 states that an appropriate job description is positively related to motivation and competencies within WCEs and BCEs. Training has no relationship either with motivation or competencies with regard to WCEs but it is significantly related with competencies with regard to BCEs. Thus the proposition is partially accepted. Proposition 5 states that right and timely selection process is positively related to motivation and competencies within WCEs and BCEs. Selection process has no relationship either with motivation or competencies with regard to both cohorts. Thus the proposition is rejected.
5.2 Regression Analysis
Proposition 1 (Table 2a, 2b) predicts that performance appraisal is positively related to motivation and competencies with regard to WCEs and BCEs employees. Regression results for WCEs partially accepted for motivation and fully accepted for competencies where, β1=.07, β2=.43 the changes in the variables are affected. For BCEs, the alternate proposition is partially accepted for motivation as well as competencies where, β 3=.05, β4=.05, the changes in the variables are affected.
Table 2a. Regression results of job analysis affecting motivation and competencies of WCEs Proposition 2 predicts that rewards are positively related to motivation and competencies with regard to WCEs and BCEs.
Regression results for WCEs, the alternate proposition is fully accepted for motivation but rejected for competencies where, β1=.16, β2=─ the changes in the variables are affected. For BCEs, the alternate proposition is partially accepted for motivation.03, and fully accepted for competencies where, β3=.09, β4=.12, the changes in the variables are affected.
Conference papers © Knowledge Globalization Institute, Pune, India, 2012 Table 2b. Regression results of job analysis affecting motivation and competencies of BCEs Proposition 3 (Table 2a, 2b) predicts that training is positively related to motivation and competencies for WCEs and BCEs.
Regression results for WCEs, the alternate proposition is partially accepted for motivation but rejected for competencies where, β1=.03, β2=─.03, the changes in the variables are affected. For BCEs, the alternate proposition is accepted for motivation but rejected for competencies where, β3=.12, β4=─.16, the changes in the variables are affected. Proposition 4 predicts that job description is positively related to motivation and competencies with regard to WCEs and BCEs. Regression results for WCEs, the alternate proposition is partially accepted for motivation and fully competencies an. There is positive relationship between motivation, competencies and job description where, β1=.01, β2=.49 the changes in the variables are affected. For BCEs, the alternate proposition is not accepted for motivation but fully accepted for competencies where, β3=─.04, β4=.28, the changes in the variables are not affected. Proposition 5 predicts that selection process is positively related to motivation and competencies for WCEs and BCEs. Regression results for WCEs, the alternate proposition is partially accepted for motivation but fully accepted for competencies so it proves first proposition. There is positive relationship between motivation and selection process where, β1 =.04, β2=.24. For BCEs, the alternate proposition is not accepted for motivation and competencies where, β1=─ β2=─ the changes in the variables are not affected.
The study found significant correlations of performance appraisal and training with competencies with regard to white-collar and blue-collar employees respectively. It means an increased level competency is positively related with performance management.
Besides, training is also related proportionately with competencies of employees in the studied firm. This was congruent with research outcome reported by Glazerman (2010). In fact, objective performance management can heighten competencies that might work as a source of self-motivation. Job description is an organization's process of defining strategy, or direction, and making decisions on allocating its resources to pursue the strategy including its capital and employees from the job and the job responsibilities. The positive results in regard to the job description from both cohorts (β2=.49*; β4=.28*) provide notion to reshuffle existing job while undermining less important task. The study discloses (β2=.24*) that selection process is important to inculcate competencies for white collar employees. It is vital for firm to attract large talent pool at the outset of recruitment process. Rewards and promotion are inevitable to enhance employee‟ s performance (β1=.16*; β4=.12*) and if employees perform well then that would be deemed as a source of competitive advantage for the firm in the long-run. The result indicates that training affects competencies with regard to blue-collar employees which lead towards the initiative taken by firm to create avenues for more training and development. Though motivation is an important criterion and recognized well by the employees of the firm. White collar employees could be more flexible to let the blue collar employees understand about the positive effect of the motivation. The study reports that the variables are interdependent and both cohorts acknowledge the positive perception of job analysis to capitalize knowledge, skills and abilities to sustain business in the studied firm. By and large, the study found significant perceptual differences in terms of performance appraisal and training with regards to whitecollar and blue-collar employees. Other variables like rewards, selection process and job description have no relationship with motivation and competencies.
It is concluded that the most influence on motivation and competencies are caused by performance appraisal, and training since both white collar and blue collar employees accorded it substantially. On the other hand, rewards, selection process and job description have less effect on competencies and motivation. Therefore, perception of job analysis irrespective of position is very crucial to pursue everyday’s task and to carry out most important job frequently rather than casual tasks. It is recognized when objective performance appraisal is being practiced, rewards and training are involved rather than job description and
Conference papers © Knowledge Globalization Institute, Pune, India, 2012
motivation. White collar employees especially top management could equally render due attention to illustrate job description and refocus selection process because workers may not perceive the importance of job outright but in future it would contribute better performance. The study skims off more rooms to spare for research. It identifies perceptual differences and relationship of performance appraisal, reward, training, job description, and selection process with employee’s motivation and competencies.
More research may examine strategic integration of all these determinants to human resource management. Besides, other internal as well as external factors might trigger perception of job analysis with motivation and competencies of the employees which was beyond the present study. Though the study was confined to a single firm in manufacturing industry and the sample size was small (N=100), to have comprehensive idea sample size could have been bigger. Future research may consider not only using multiple stakeholders to increase data reliability but also to undertake more firms both in manufacturing and service industry alike.
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