«Published Annually Vol. 6, No. 1 ISBN 978-0-979-7593-3-8 CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS Sawyer School of Business, Suffolk University, Boston, Massachusetts ...»
7. Linder, J.C., (1992) ‘The complex case of management education’, Harvard Business Review, Vol.70, No.5, pp.16-33.
8. Mohammed, A.M., (2009) ‘Management Education for Contemporary challenges: The Role of Business School’, European Journal of Scientific Research, Vol.30, No.4, pp.649-661.
Conference papers © Knowledge Globalization Institute, Pune, India, 2012 The Relevance of Management Education in Developing Countries with Special Reference to India
Management education in India is confronted with new challenges posed by liberalization, globalization and privatization.
These economic factors are influencing every society and every aspect of human development. Management education is no exception from the influence of these changes in this new millennium. At present, every member country is being pressured by WTO to liberalize the rules and regulations concerning higher education. Many member countries including India started liberalizing its educational policies. The impact of globalization has changed the business procedure in India in terms of psychology, methodology, technology, mindset work culture etc. newer challenges; newer opportunities are day-by-day in front of Indian industries, which are profitable and prospective.
In terms of growth, during 1970 and 1980 witnessed the growth of management Institutions in India. The two years MBA was followed by one year executive MBA and currently the focus is shifting to evening and part-time MBAs, often backed with distance learning.
SIGNIFICANCE AND GLOBAL CONTEXT OF MANAGEMENT EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES LIKE INDIA:
The management education plays an essential role in today’s dynamic business environment. The rapid trend of globalization and technological changes have made difficult for organizations to survive in the competitive world. The business organisations are influenced by changing variables like external and internal factors, involvement of other parties and contractual relations.
As a result the importance of management education has been increased many folds. Business executives need to update their skills due to sudden changes in the external environment.
Foreign university have been allowed to open their branches in India, their influence in structuring the academic courses in India have been considerable. Such influence is a threat to Indian higher education in general and management education in particular. All the business organizations will have to face the competition of the global changes; they have to appoint the suitable professional personnel in their organizations to face the competitions. In this context, where will our students stand?
Will they get jobs in national and multi-national companies and other organization? Whether our syllabus/curriculum equips our students to face these competitions? Definitely not, then what we need today is skill/value oriented education, syllabus should be framed in such a way to enhance the knowledge of our students not only theoretically but also practically and in other latest potential areas, to face the global competition.
ISSUES OF MANAGEMENT EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES LIKE INDIA:
1. For upgrading the quality of education, paucity of good faculty is the major bottleneck. Indian management Institutes vary widely in terms of the caliber of the faculty. Teachers in management education found lack in their teaching skills, leadership skills, team building skills and innovative skills required to be used in designing the teaching methodology.
2. More than half of the institutions are not paying salaries as per the 6 pay commission.
3. Indian management Institutes vary widely in terms of quality of infrastructure, and placement of students. It is found that most of the management institutes are dissatisfied with the facilities like canteen, Guest houses, faculty improvement budget, Library books and journals etc for teachers. In fact, institutes are not taking care of these facilities. Very few of the schools, including the Indian Institutes of Management, have built up a reputation for high quality education and their graduates compete successfully for global placement opportunities. However, academic standards of most of the management Institutions are pathetic.
Conference papers © Knowledge Globalization Institute, Pune, India, 2012
4. It is observed that today’s administrators of management institutes seek to attract students to their institute programmes by increased advertisement efforts without paying attention on their institution’s strengths and weaknesses. In fact at the low end, we find that, these Institutions charge exorbitant fee from students but provide negligible academic value add.
5. Our syllabus/curriculum doesn’t equip our students to face today’s competition. Our syllabus/curriculum is mainly traditional/theory oriented and not focused on the need of the hour. Most of our subjects are not relevant to this changing situation.
6. It is found in India that affiliated management Institutes lack in autonomy in terms of academic curriculum, they follow the syllabus given by the affiliating University; hence they could not strengthen their curriculum.
SUGGESTIONS TO MANAGEMENT EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTIRES LIKE INIDA
1. Today’s management education is primarily concerned with theoretical knowledge about management which can be applied in a relatively scientific and rational manner. Therefore, Research should be carried out to develop the management syllabus for the management institutions taking into account the external and internal environment of the organizations and future trend in society. The teachers in Management institutions with affiliating University should strive to make the syllabus to be more attractive and commercially viable. In fact, to maintain the quality of management education, it is pertinent for teachers of Management Institutions to remain in close contact with the industry and change the syllabi periodically as per the need base.
2. In addition to this, if possible new partnership between companies or business organisations and Management institutions should be formed to enhance the level of organisational development.
3. In addition to this, Management Institutions must strengthen their curriculum in terms of faculty, research, industry interaction, use of technology and case study methods etc. Traditional classroom delivery needs to be changed with more innovative teaching approaches; focus should be on various organisations know-how.
4. Quality of education must be compared with international standards. There is a need to offer training programmes for students jointly with industrial environment. What we need today is skill/value oriented education. Syllabus should be framed in such a way to enhance the knowledge of our students not only theoretically but also practically and in other latest potential areas, to face the global competition. Thus efforts should be made that management education and practice should be concurrent and integrated.
5. Keeping in mind the future scenario, management Institute will have to develop following skills among students:
Information Technology Management skill Decision making in very dynamic environment HRD skills Service sector management skills Time management skills Stress management skills Environment management skills Entrepreneurship Customers service management skills
6. Controlling bodies such as AICTE and Universities under which these Management Institutes are affiliated must promote research work of teaching faculty. Concrete policies for encouraging research should be designed.
7. Frequent Faculty Development Programmes should be arranged by these controlling bodies. The faculty feedback should be taken on practical utility of Faculty Development programmes regularly. FDPs designed should have a theme and a well defined structure.
8. Teaching faculty of the management Institutes should interact with people in different fields to expand his knowledge and experience.
Thus, in short, the immediate challenge for management education is to enhance the academic standards across the board to create a reasonably large pool of good quality institutions.
Changing conceptions of the nature of management along with challenges to traditional approaches to their development are driving a number of trends in management education. In today’s era, Management education should prepare student for roles and situations beyond their current experience and equips managers with the knowledge, skills and abilities to enhance performance on known tasks through the application of proven solutions. In fact, true management education should result in organisation development and ultimately the development of the country.
Conference papers © Knowledge Globalization Institute, Pune, India, 2012
Thus, the quality of teachers and curriculum are the crucial factors those decide the quality of management education. Rest all are subsidiary. The management institutions need to constantly explore the emerging trends in business and update their curricula in order to enable the students to cope with the challenges of the dynamic business organizations.
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Women are increasingly making more of an impact than men in rural India. The paper will share the initiatives taken by Ashta No Kai, an NGO working in a rural setting to address gender issues and empower women. It will demonstrate how using propoor, pro-women strategies can lead to social transformation. Practical and simple poverty alleviation innovations that the NGO has used to overcome the challenges of gender inequity including the Self-Help Group initiative will be elaborated upon. The focus will be to show how these initiatives have impacted women and assisted them in making the transition from passive acceptance of their fate to becoming vocal and active partners in their own development. Finally, suggestions will be offered for a more effective role that industry can play in bringing about sustainable development that is oriented towards the needs of the population being served.
Women’s empowerment, although it still has miles to go, has certainly come a long way. Despite gender equality seeming a far from attainable goal, the winds of change are blowing, slowly but surely, in rural India. Millions of poor illiterate women are spearheading a silent revolution, the Self-Help Group movement, which has proven to be an effective poverty alleviation intervention in enabling marginalized women to become economically independent. Thanks to progressive laws such as the 73rd Amendment, more than one million women are participating in local governance and development in India’s 600,000 villages. Rural women are starting to assert themselves, challenging deep rooted patriarchal practices and beginning to negotiate new roles and opportunities for themselves. With a new-found confidence, marginalized rural women are gaining a voice and a visibility both at home, and in their communities. They are increasingly becoming aware of their rights and demanding not only basic needs but also a share in household and community resources.
Jawaharlal Nehru, India’s first Prime Minister realized that “To awaken people it is the woman who must be awakened. Once she is on the move, the family moves, the village moves, the nation moves”. This was decades before national and international organizations such as the United Nations and the World Bank put women’s empowerment high on their agendas as the key to sustainable development and poverty alleviation. According to Gita Sen and Caren Grown, it is women “who constitute the majority of poor; the underemployed and the economically and socially disadvantaged in most societies” (Sen and Grown, 1987). Amartya Sen’s apt definition of poverty as “capability deprivation” clearly indicates that poverty is not just leading a life of impoverishment, but a very real lack of access to economic and other resources and opportunities for people to improve the quality of their lives (Dreze and Sen 1999). Poor women also suffer from the additional burdens imposed by gender based hierarchy and subordination. Gender discrimination hence, coupled with illiteracy and a lack of opportunities only drags women deeper into a cycle of poverty and deprivation.