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«Published Annually Vol. 6, No. 1 ISBN 978-0-979-7593-3-8 CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS Sawyer School of Business, Suffolk University, Boston, Massachusetts ...»

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An important development of early 1990s that had tremendous impact on higher education was the introduction of new economic reform policies that include stabilization and structural adjustment, which required drastic cut in public expenditure across the board, including education. These policies set the tone of drastic reforms in Higher education in India in the following years and the whole higher education suffered drastically. The economic reform policy introduced in the beginning of the 1990s did not allow the government to allocate adequate resources to Higher education.

Decline in per student expenditure means decline in the real resources available per student on average, seriously affecting the quality of education. In addition to this, steep cuts in the budget allocation for libraries, laboratories, scholarships,, faculty improvement programme etc… had serious effect on the quality of higher education.

The cost of Higher education is to be borne by government or by taxpayer, parents, and donors. The funds for higher education in India comes from mainly three different sources

1) Government

2) Fee income from students.

Conference papers © Knowledge Globalization Institute, Pune, India, 2012

3) Other sources of income- Philanthropy, industry, sale of publication Higher education in India is primarily funded by the governments. State and Central and the households. The Central and State government spend around Rs-190 billion per year on Higher education. Public universities traditionally live on grants from the governments and 95% grants provided to them goes towards fee and establishment expenses. Her are hardly any disposable funds to develop the institution. Methods of teachings are outdated; far too much money is wasted on frivolous administrative expenditure. More funds needed to be diverted to productive purposes. At present most of the Higher education institution belongs to government or funded by them. Criticism that the regulatory bodies, therefore only address the issues of immediate importance to the government such as extent of grant, government representation on the Board and regulation of courses. For this reason there has not been sufficient emphasis on academic rigor and developing skills to meet the needs of industry and the job market.

It us seen that the funding is lopsided and limited.85% of the total central funding to Higher education including Technical education goes for supporting only about 3% students enrolled in around 130 out of a total 17,625 Higher education institutions in the country. The UGC is also main funding agency of the Central government, whereas only 42 institutions are funded by Central government directly, all others funded through UGC grant. Bulk of expenditure on Higher education is on revenue account and the capital expenditure is on negligible proportion. In terms of mandate UGC is expected to inquire into the financial requirements of universities and advice the government provide the same. The actual performance of UGC to carry out this function is questionable.The private unaided institutions are unaided universities and colleges are expected to be self financing and are expected to meet their expenses through their own revenue resources, which is mostly from tution.They are not eligible for any public funding or UGC grant.

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Sources- Annual statistics financing statistics of Education sector 2003-04,MHRD Govt of India, New Delhi-2005 and Expenditure budget 2006-07,Volume -2 Government of India,2006

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The question of making higher education of India affordable while ensuring its fiscal viability and quality constitutes the central problem in the provision of Higher education in India. Student’s loan in the US could be a solution students loans are in operation today in more than 100 countries around the globe.Education loan is very popular among students because it is simple and appealing logic, despite its inherent weakness. It is argued that in order to safeguard the interest of poor students from the rising cost of Higher education, a number of countries in developing and developed world have established Student loan programme.

The old National Scholarship Scheme was started in 1963 to provide interest free loan to needy and able students to help them full time Higher education in India. Loans were renewable on annual basis. The scheme was implemented through State Government for disbursement of around 20,000 loan scholarship (1) Unrealistic rate of scholarship with the rate of passage of time (2) Low rate of returns (3) Thinly spread out resources over a large target group The education scheme was introduced in India in the budget of 2000-01 the scheme is administered by commercial banks. The scheme covered wide range of courses in higher studies and both in India and abroad. There was no income ceiling on students or parents for eligibility of this loan scheme. Neither academic records nor marks required. There is no any special provision for weaker section of society in terms of lower rate of interest, payment period, and repayment in accordance with the earnings, government guarantee, waivers etc.However this scheme was criticized for being insensitive to the needs of the poor and does not concern equity aspects there are no special provision for weaker section of society.

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In the US the government has taken major steps in deregulation of higher education sector as well as adoption of market based policies designed to make universities more efficient and effective. The US system is the most market oriented system in the world with the existence of large number of privately funded colleges and universities and public universities supported by fifty states that compete nationally with private institutions or student and research funds.

Conference papers © Knowledge Globalization Institute, Pune, India, 2012

Further, federal policies provide research support to individual rather than institutions. Thus colleges and universities in the US compete with each other for students and the competition is becoming more and more aggressive. Therefore, colleges and universities form a common industry providing academic degrees, research and services to their clients who are students.

Colleges and universities compete for students, research grants, faculty education services, customers are the students who look at ‘prestige of degree’ and value for money in their selection. The market competition also triggers greater innovation and adaption in higher education.

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(1) Prime Ministers speech on 15 August 2007 announced governments’ decision to establish many centrally funded high level institution.

(2) National Development Council approval to increase XI th Plan allocation to UGC by four fold compared to Xth plan allocation.

(3) The need of Public-Private partnership in excellence of Higher education.

(4) Finance Minister allotment of additional INR 1000 million to the universities of Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai.

(5) Allotment of additional INR 1000 million to Indian institute of Science Banglore to become world level university.

(6) Setting up NKC (2005) (7) Draft of National Biotechnology plan (2004/05) (8) New Science and Technology Policy (2003) (9) Setting up an educational satellite (2003) “Our university system is in many parts, in state of disrepair…In almost half the district in the country, higher education enrollment are abysmally low, almost two third of our universities and 90% of our colleges are rated as below average on quality parameter …I am concerned that in many states university appointments, including that of Vice Chancellors have been politicised and have become subject to caste and communal consideration, her are complaints of favoritism and corruption.”

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India’s Higher education system is third largest in the world after China and United States The main governing body at the territory level is UGC which enforces its standards advises the government. And helps the co-ordination between Centre and State.Accreditation for Higher education is overseen by 12 Autonomous institutions established by UGC.

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(1) At the macro level, he said, "We have to create more universities," and argued that "the roughly 400 universities that we have is not enough for a country of a billion people. Roughly 8 percent of our eligible children have the opportunity to enter the higher education and that number ought to be closer to 16 or 20 percent."

(2) One of the recommendations which is being taken seriously and the government is planning to implement is to create a single body for higher education called the Higher Education Council, which will look at expansion, quality standard, and also integrate technical education, quality of medical education, quality of legal education, etc."

(3) There was also the dire need to build new national universities and said the government was committed to the "creation of 30 new national universities."

(4) Going forward technology would be incorporation aggressively into everything from course work, remote access, systems learning, improving contention, and resource management for universities to be more productive.

(5) "It is going to be a key driver and as a result the government of India has decided to spend several billions of dollars on building national knowledge networks. This will connect 5,000 locations with technology facilities to all our universities, all major libraries and all major R & D centers, such that universities would create their own local area networks."

(6) "We've got into a situation where most of our professors don't do research and more of our research scientists don't teach. So, we need to bridge that divide (7) We do recognize that it's a long road and we do need partnership with international institutions. So, we are working on a bill for foreign universities to participate in India."

(8) We do have several programs where private businesspeople want to build universities and all of this work is going on.

We need expansion not only in technical education, but also in liberal arts. We don't have very good liberal arts universities of international standard."


Government regulation of higher education has been the subject of acrimonious debate across the policy spectrum. The inability to improve the quality of private institutions of Higher learning is the key failure of India’s education regulators. The regulatory procedure is thoroughly politicised it is well documented that most of the private colleges owned by Politicians.Decentralisation is another important part the purpose of this to eliminate the cumbersomeness and inefficiency to convert high cost per unit into low cost per unit and replace diseconomies of scale.

Regulation therefore needs to be well structured and thoroughly researched to take full account of relevance, requirements, practical constraints, and market realities. We need better education, and we do need new courses, new contention, new delivery standards," he added, and reiterated that "we are hoping to rely heavily on information communications technology because we cannot scale without the use of technology."

Pitroda argued that "the model that we have seen in the western world is too expensive -- not scalable and not sustainable in India."

But he spoke of the demand for higher education in India, which was manifest in "close to 100,000 of our students go abroad and pay $30,000 a year for tuition."

He said that "supply is not just out there and the only way we can meet supply and demand is to really open up the system a little more and create a level playing field -- invite private partnerships but at the same time increase government spending substantially on higher education."

(1) 2004 Association of Indian Universities, New Delhi Assessment and accreditation of Higher Education.

(2) 1991 Decentralisation of Higher Education New Delhi Assessment and accreditation of Higher Education.

(3) A. Singh “Challenges in Higher Education” Economics and Political weekely, May 22, 2004.pp 2155 to 2158.

(4) What is plaguing Higher Education in India By Dr.B.M.Hegde, India (January 19, 2011.

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(6) http://siteresource.worldbank.org/Education resource/India country summary.pdf (7) www.ugc.ac.in.htpp://www.ugc.ac.in/inside/centraluni.html.

(8) India doesn’t figure in the world’s top 100 universities.timesofindia.com2010 Sept 12.

(9) The institute of National Importance http://www.education.nic.in (10) www.ignou.ac.in (11) A crisis of confidence in Higher Education universityworldnews.com 2011 August24.http://www.universityworldnews.com (12) www.newsweek.com (13) M.C.Chagla “Roses in December” Education System in India pp 305 -338 (14) Fake and Cheat universities in India, Think Ahead (15) www.Cgi.cnn.com (16) htpp://en.wikipedia.org.

(17) Selected educational statistics 2004-05 MHRD 2007 (18) Draft report of working group on Higher Education for the XI plan, Planning Commission, Government of India (2007) Conference papers © Knowledge Globalization Institute, Pune, India, 2012 Emerging Challenges beyond Opportunities in Management Education in India: A Case Study of Andhra Pradesh

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This paper presents a conceptual framework in the context of growth of management education and its major challenges beyond the opportunities which hamper the quality of management education and what steps required to improve the quality of management education in the state of Andhra Pradesh. In the globalised era, India witnessed a drastic change in its educational system in general and in professional education in particular. Being introduced new age courses which have more st economic value in the 21 century; Management education is one among them which got a new dimension with this changing time. In the last two decades, the growth of management education in India has been phenomenal. Most of the management education in India is in the form of MBA (Master of Business Administration) and in PGDM (Post graduation Diploma in Management) or PGDBM (Post graduation Diploma in business Management) and they are available at fulltime, part time, distance or online mode.

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