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«Published Annually Vol. 6, No. 1 ISBN 978-0-979-7593-3-8 CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS Sawyer School of Business, Suffolk University, Boston, Massachusetts ...»

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5) Over centralization

6) Lack of institutional autonomy and accountability

7) Very slow response to changes The other cause of poor governance is system of affiliating colleges to the university which yields revenue for university through fees. There are total 17,700 undergraduate colleges out of which mere 1.1% are autonomous.The rest are affiliated to universities, with so many affiliated colleges university become bulky structure. The concentration on motives and intentions rather than on likely outcome.

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State of Andhra Pradesh Vs J.B.Education Society the Supreme Court held that the consent of the state government is necessary before starting an engineering college and the AICTE cannot grant approval without this consent. But the grounds on which the determination made is astonishing.The court held that “ state authority alone can decide about educational facility and the needs of the locality.If there are more colleges in a particular area the state would not be justified in granting permission to one more college in that locality.

The UGC Act section 3.1.2(a) suggests that an additional institution will be permitted only if the commission is satisfied that the existing institutions in the state are not adequate to serve the needs of the state. The gross enrolment rate of Higher education in India is roughly 6% this will need to be doubled in next decade this involves crores of rupees investment.Since the government is not able to meet the requirement all other sources needed to be tapped.

Bold Structural Changes Needed in Indian Higher Education System during XII Plan A retrospective critique of our journey during the XI plan in higher education only edges us forward to reflect upon of our present position with concern. India aspires to create a ‘knowledge society’, a leader in education to produce human resource that is globally competitive. Will an introspection and self-appraisal drive us to reconsider the existing system for a major structural change that would ensure a new breeze of self-imposed discipline in high-quality teaching, research, minimize mediocrity and energize growth? Will this herald the renaissance of Takshilas and Nalandas into the country, attracting scholars and knowledge-seekers from across the globe? The concern of everyone is the absence of a world-class university in India worthy of its name on the international ranking? A public debate comparing the major and conspicuous differences between Indian and well known world class universities could set a tone for bold structural changes in the XII plan for higher education.

Three major differences emerge which may be the stumbling blocks to our attaining excellence: First, Indian universities and colleges totally lack in ‘critical mass’ of students; secondly, the undergraduate programmes are fragmented from the university campuses, and; thirdly, the existing affiliation system of colleges to universities is the bottleneck for their autonomy and freedom to grow with innovations.

These issues need to be addressed for our universities to attain global parity though other issues of faculty, infrastructure, laboratories, library and a conducive ambience are as important. About 559 Indian universities have less than 2 million students, with an average enrolment of 3,500 students in contrast to 20,000 to 40,000 in any good public or private funded university in US, France, UK, China or Singapore. The 20 older central universities hold about 18,000 acres of land with 1, 58,000 students amounting to about nine students per acre. Universities are even resistant to expansion and optimum use of our land and infrastructure. Talent search for world class research students in our universities is limited to the small sub-critical numbers. It is like fishing in a small pond which will fetch small fishes while out in the ocean one has chances of encountering sharks and whales. These large fishes are the ones who bring credit to universities and the country.

Over 31,900 colleges have less than 15 million students with an average strength of less than 490 students. Interestingly, 71 per cent of PG students are in colleges and only 29 per cent in universities where as 80 per cent of PhD students are in universities.

Out of the 2 million university students, 90 per cent are in state and private universities. Optimum use of existing land and Conference papers © Knowledge Globalization Institute, Pune, India, 2012 infrastructure, drastic increase in intake both at universities and colleges to reach the critical mass should be the main focus of the XII plan.

High quality university education will remain a dream as long as there is fragmentation of undergraduate programmes and it is kept out of main university campuses. Bringing in schools of undergraduate programmes on campuses and introducing integrated masters and PhD programmes has shown excellent results in universities like the Pondicherry University. Standalone colleges should be autonomous degree awarding colleges with both UG and PG programmes.

The System of Affiliation of Colleges

The system of affiliation of colleges to universities has jeopardized the growth, suppressed autonomy and innovation, freedom to grow and has become the cause for unfair practices in higher education system. Abolishing affiliation system, and creation of college cluster multiple campus-universities (CC-MCUs) by clustering around 5-20 colleges with a vice chancellor and administrative system is the only feasible model that is comparable to multiple campus universities in the US and France. Over 1,000 CC-MCU’s can be created during the XII plan; which is perfectly in tune with National Knowledge Commission and the Yashpal Committee recommendations, a model that will bring formidable strength through sharing of all resources. They can be created through state or central Acts and could be state-funded, partially Centre-funded or fully centrally funded universities

The Assessment of Educational Institutions

The assessment of quality of a good institution begins with its tangibles like the ambience, appearance, quality of facilities, library, support system, student amenities and the like. This is followed by the reliability of the institution, relevance and the disciplined error-free timely delivery of the programmes, and finally the flexibility of learning, mobility of students and quality of teachers and the inflow if international faculty and students. Networking with national laboratories and industry, establishment of National Educational Resource Portal, ‘One-window information’ should be the priority. To provide sophisticated research and analytical facilities, Inter-university centre’s exclusively for university and college teachers will boost the quality of research publications. Stricter laws for plagiarism and research ethics committees should be mandatory in every university.

The national ranking mechanism, at least based on an online questionnaire, should be the first step for mandatory ranking of all Indian colleges and universities, to benefit students, employers, funding agencies and collaborators. School-wise and disciplinewise accreditation is more meaningful than the present system of university accreditation as a unit. For the past 15 years NAAC has accredited less than 5 per cent colleges and less than 15 per cent universities, as the rest have not volunteered or are said to be not up to the mark.

A ten-fold increase in allocation for higher education during the XI plan to `46,000 crore from `4,600 crore, establishment of 15 new universities, eight IITs, seven IIMs, 20 IIITs and five IISERs have all been great steps. The XII plan allocation could double the XI plan. It is obvious that it is not the dearth of funding but something more that is stumbling the desired growth in number (GER) and global quality. Ironically, only 35 per cent of plan allocation will be spent by the end of XI plan. State universities and state colleges contribute the maximum in terms of human resource but just 7,661 of the 31,900 colleges are eligible for some limited grant from the University Grants Commission and the rest are starving for funds. This imbalance, poor implementation and monitoring mechanisms have resulted in unsatisfactory performance and underutilization of funds. A National Empowered Monitoring Committee under the HRM overlooking the performance of UGC can only ensure full utilization of funds. The focus in the XII plan should shift to colleges and state universities and monitoring mechanisms strengthened.

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Some of the important recommendations of National Knowledge Commission (NKC) include change in the system of regulation for higher education, increase in public funding and diversifying of source of financing and establishment of 50 national universities. The commission has also recommended establishment of Independent Regulatory Authority for Higher Education (IRAHE) which should be at arm’s length from all stakeholders including Government of India and it should be conceptualized by NKC is to be set up by the Act of Parliament and would be the only agency to accord the degree granting power. The purpose of Conference papers © Knowledge Globalization Institute, Pune, India, 2012 creating this agency is to separate the functions it shall be responsible for setting up criteria and deciding on entry it would in addition agencies to take care of accreditation.The role of UGC will be limited to disbursing the public fund.

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The Ministry of Human Resource Development,Government of India set up another committee under the chairmanship of eminent physicist and a former chairman of UGC,Prof.Yashpal,to guide the efforts at reform process. This committee known as the committee to Advise on Renovation and Rejuvenation of Higher Education submitted its report very recently and advised different structure and role of regulatory authority than the one suggested by NKC.Prof.Yashpal committee mentioned that holistic view of knowledge requires a regulatory system which treat the entire range of educational institutions in a holistic manner. This committee recommended a single,all encompassing higher education authority since it considered all higher education including engineering,medicine,agriculture,law,and distance education as an integrated whole This committee noted there were 13 professional councils created under various acts of Parliament to promote and regulate specialized areas of co-ordination and integration in the planning and development of higher education system including research. The committee accordingly proposed to create an apex body to subsume academic functions of all professional bodies to be called The National Commission for Higher Education and Research (NCHER).

Privatisation of Higher Education

One of the striking features of the development of Higher education in India over the last few decades has been the extent to which private institutions have entered the scene and attempted to respond to the massive demand of education at the post secondary level. This is true particularly in the field of engineering, medicine, management and much at the broader level of university education. The strong emergence of private sector is reflected in the funding pattern, while the government share has declined from 80% in 1983 to 67% in 1999, private expenditure has increased more than ten times over the same period.

Till 1990 the expansion of higher education largely took place through affiliated colleges. By then promoters of private unaided colleges realised that the regulatory mechanism of affiliating university and state government were inhibiting their growth and did not allow them to fully exploit their potential. The promoters were not able to make money from educational enterprises.Such institutions explored the possibilities of emerging out of control of the State government and affiliating universities. Some of the institutions took the deemed to be university route to get the degree granting power

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In two conflicting judgments of Supreme courts, the issue of Capitation Fee Colleges was addressed. In 1992,the Supreme Court in St.Stephens Vs University of Delhi practically banned high fee charging private colleges stating that capitation fee is potentially unreasonably unfair and unjust.The following year in Uni Krishnan Vs State of Andhra Pradesh the court reviewed the state right to interfere in the admission policy and the fee structure of private professional institutions. In this context the court ruled out that education is fundamental right which could not be used for profit seeking. The very fact that education is right not a service. For example- Kerala High court did entertain a complaint about the quality of education by a student who had paid a capitation fee. In 2002 the Supreme Court reversed the decision in Uni Krishnan case saying that a private unaided institution could make reasonable profit to meet the cost of expansion and augmentation of facilities. Thereafter elaborate mechanism developed by government that helped the proliferation of self financing of capitation fees.

Growth of Colleges for General Education, Colleges for Professional Education, and Universities during 1950-51 to 2004-2005

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1950-51 370 208 27 1955-56 466 218 31 Conference papers © Knowledge Globalization Institute, Pune, India, 2012 1960-61 967 852 45 1965-66 1536 770 64 1970-71 2285 992 82 1975-76 3667 3276 101 1980-81 3421 3542 110 1985-86 4067 1533 126 1990-91 4862 886 184 2002-03 9166 2610 304 2003-04 9427 2751 304 2004-05 10377 3201 364

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1980-81 25,417 2,91,341 18,86,428 2,39,267 24,42,453 4,30126 28,72,579 1990-91 32,468 3,54,216 32,85,776 4,16,828 40,89,288 7,96,686 48,85,974 2000-01 45,004 6,47,338 72,44,915 6,88,625 86,25,882 9,827,279 96,13,161 2001-02 53,119 6,47,016 71,39,497 7,90,050 86,29,682 11,04,594 97,34,276 2002-03 65,357 7,82,590 76,33,125 10,35,701 95,16,773 11,99,785 107,16558 2003-04 65,525 8,06,636 80,26,147 11,10,840 100,09,148 11,91,447 112,00595

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