«Published Annually Vol. 6, No. 1 ISBN 978-0-979-7593-3-8 CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS Sawyer School of Business, Suffolk University, Boston, Massachusetts ...»
In India, which is one of the top destinations in terms of medical tourism Healthcare has emerged as one of the most progressive and largest service sectors. As per Ibef industry reports, the Indian healthcare sector is expected to reach US$ 280 billion by 2020. One of the major drivers of growth in the healthcare sector is India’s booming population that is increasing at a rate of 2% annually. India will overtake China by 2030 as the world’s most populous nation and by 2050, the population is projected to reach 1.6 billion. This growth in population is largely due to better healthcare facilities resulting in longer life spans as well as decline in infant mortality rate. Moreover, with booming economy, Indians are living more affluent lives and are now prone to lifestyle diseases such as hypertension, cancer, and diabetes, which is reaching epidemic proportions.
But unfortunately, the healthcare infrastructure has not kept pace with the economy’s growth. Although, the manpower is one of the best in the world, the sheer number required to cater to millions of people is inadequate. Moreover, besides a few state of art hospitals in urban areas, the rest of the country is grappling with poor infrastructure, lack of healthcare facilities and shortage of trained medicos. The Government of India is doing its part with increase in the plan allocation for health by 20% to US$ 5.8 billion in Union Budget of 2011-12. Similarly, the government allocated an additional US$ 1.23 billion for six upcoming AIIMS-like institutes and upgradation of 13 existing Government Medical Colleges in 2010. In fact, Indian government is the highest spender (that is 5.25% of the GDP) on healthcare amongst the developing countries. Despite this, the public sector is contributing only around 15-20 per cent of the required investment in the healthcare sector.
Therefore, with such a large investment, this sector is poised for growth in the next few years. Thus it becomes imperative that good management strategies such as Knowledge management are leveraged to make optimal utilization of resources and improved healthcare delivery especially in a developing country like India. There is a significant body of evidence that shows that experts are now keen to embrace KM tools and techniques to bring about the necessary change required for improved healthcare services. Therefore, there is a need to analyse the healthcare knowledge paradigms and identify various dimensions that will facilitate superior healthcare delivery.
Experts believe that though medical science has made revolutionary changes, healthcare has not kept up the pace with those changes. The disparity between the two needs to be removed. Healthcare is a knowledge intensive discipline and ready access to the latest medical research knowledge is often the difference between life and death. It can be the difference between accurate or erroneous diagnosis, and between early intervention and a prolonged and costly hospital stay. Therefore management of knowledge becomes absolutely important as far as healthcare organizations are concerned. Moreover, it has been seen that the previous healthcare management practices have been unable to manage this information overload in healthcare. (53) In context of Indian healthcare sector, the problem of inadequate staffing, poor infrastructure, lack of latest information at the point of contact and overcrowding of premier hospitals have led to poor healthcare delivery leading to increased morbidity and mortality rates. Moreover, a vast country like India needs to share its expertise across its vast network of primary healthcare centres so that the rural areas are also able to benefit from improving technology and better treatment methods. Therefore, the Indian healthcare network needs a solution where healthcare practitioners in the remotest villages and cities of the country are connected to the top experts of the field and are able to take guidance and help to provide quality healthcare to people. It has been observed by experts such as Dwiedi et al. (52), that healthcare organizations are now moving towards adopting knowledge management practices and techniques to overcome these challenges. Hence it is important that Indian healthcare sector too works with knowledge management tools and techniques to improve their performance.
Indian Healthcare as an industry is currently undergoing tremendous changes. The last few years have seen revolutionary improvements in the technology and the industry is still grappling with finding a right solution to its growing needs. With India poised as being the hub of Medical tourism, and Indian medical professionals making a mark in the world, what is needed is a healthcare solution that will address the problems mentioned above. Healthcare Knowledge management appears to be the right fit and could provide many possibilities and the solution to problems such as access to right information at the right time and lead to provide superior healthcare delivery. (54). Therefore, it becomes necessary to study and understand the process of adoption and implementation knowledge management practices in the healthcare organizations.
Scope for Further Research
Academicians and experts have only recently started exploring the KM concepts in healthcare context. Most of the studies have focussed on bringing up theoretical models on the implementation of tools and techniques for knowledge sharing and dissemination but the literature is generally silent on its outcomes such as improved organizational learning and superior healthcare delivery. One of the reasons of the dearth of empirical studies in this discipline is that it is very difficult to identify and measure knowledge. Moreover, not many studies have been conducted to link the healthcare delivery outcome to the implementation of knowledge management paradigms in healthcare in Indian context. Therefore, more studies are required to fulfil this gap between theory and practice.
1. Nonaka I, Takeuchi H. The Knowledge Creating Company. New York: Oxford University Press; 1995.
2. Chase RL. Knowledge Management Benchmarks. Journal of Knowledge Management. 1997; 1(1):83–92.
3. Beijerse R. Questions in knowledge management: defining and conceptualizing a phenomenon. Journal of Knowledge Management. 1999; 3(2):94–110.
4. Beckman TJ. The current state of knowledge management. In: Liebowitz J, editor Knowledge management handbook.
New York: CRC Press; 1999.
5. Choo C. The knowing organization: how organizations use information to construct meaning create knowledge and make decisions. NewYork: Oxford University Press; 1998.
6. Gupta AK, Govindarajan V. Knowledge management’s social dimension: Lessons from Nucor Steel. Sloan Management Review. 2000; 42(1):71-80.
7. Anantatmula V. Designing Meaningful KM Processes to Improve Organizational Learning. TRIM. 2009; 5(2): 224.
8. Probst G, Buchel B. Organization Learning. London UK: Prentice Hall; 1997.
9. El Morr C, Subercaze J. Handbook of Research on Developments in e-Health and Telemedicine : Technological and Social Perspectives. M. Manuela Cunha, António Tavares and Ricardo Simões (Eds), IGI Global; 2009. Knowledge Management in healthcare.
10. Drucker PF. Managing For The Future: The 1990's And Beyond. New York: Truman Talley Books; 1992.
Conference papers © Knowledge Globalization Institute, Pune, India, 2012
11. McElroy M. Second-Generation KM: A White Paper. Knowledge Management. 2000; 4(3).
12. Binney D. The Knowledge Management Spectrum – Understanding the KM Landscape Journal of Knowledge Management. 2001; 5(1):33–42.
13. Rubenstein A, Geisler E. Installing and Managing Workable Knowledge Management Systems Westport CT: Praeger Publishers; 2003.
14. Davernport T, Prusak L. What’s the Big Idea? Harvard Business School Press; 2003.
15. Leonard-Barton D. Wellsprings of knowledge. Harvard Business Review. 1995; 71(2):75-84.
16. Jadad AR, Haynes RB, Browman RB. The Internet and evidence-based decision-making: a needed synergy for efficient knowledge management in healthcare. J Can Med Assoc. 2000; 162:362-365.
17. Montani S Bellazzi R. Supporting decisions in medical applications: the knowledge management perspective.
International Journal Medical Inforaticsm. 2002; 68:79-90.
18. Provonost P, Nolan T, Zegwe S, Miller M, Rubin H. How can clinicians measure safety and quality in acute care.
Lancet. 2004; 363: 1061-1067.
19. Laverde GP. Administração hospitalar. 2ª ed. Rio de Janeiro: Guanabara Koogan; 2003.
20. Goncalo C, Jacques EJ, Souza Y. Knowledge Strategy in Hospitals: a contextual perspective based on the implementation of medical assistantial protocols. In: 8th European Conference on Knowledge Management Barcelona. Proceedings of the 8th European Conference on Knowledge Management; 2007.
21. Camilleri D, O’Callaghan M. Comparing public and private hospital care service quality. International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance. 1998; 11(4):127.
22. Porter M, Teisberg EO. Redefining competition in health care. Harvard Business Review. 2004; 82(6):65-72
23. Ulrich D, Smallwood N. Capitalizing on capabilities. Harvard Business Review. 2004; 82(6): 119-128.
24. Davenport TH, Glaser J. Just-in-time delivery comes to knowledge management. Harvard Business Review. 2002;
25. Powers V. Improving IT wellness: Health care organizations adopt knowledge-enabled technology. KM World. 2004;
26. Van Beveren J. Does health care for knowledge management? Journal of Knowledge Management. 2003; 7(1): 90-95.
27. Awad EM, Ghaziri M. Knowledge Management. Upper Saddle River NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall; 2004.
28. Becera-Fernandez I, Gonzales A, Sabherwal R. Knowledge Management: Challenges Solutions and Technologies.
Upper Saddle River NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall; 2004.
29. Silver C. Where Technology and Knowledge Meet. Journal of Business Strategy. 2000;28-33.
30. Garvin DA. Building a learning organization. Harvard Business Review. 1993; 71(4):78-91.
31. Ferreira P, Pinheiro P, Rodrigues R. Intellectual Capital and Knowledge Management Practices in Health Systems.
Proceedings of the International Conference on Intellectual Capital Knowledge Management and Organizational Learning; 2011.
32. Anantatmula V. Outcomes of Knowledge Management Initiatives. International Journal of Knowledge Management.
33. Mirela CI, Aurelia S. Organizational Learning and Knowledge Management. Nen Madl Economic Science Series. Annals of the University of Oradea; 2010.
34. Pemberton J, Stonehouse G. Organizational learning and knowledge assets – an essential partnership. The Learning Organization. 2000; 7(4):184-193.
35. Addicott R, McGivern G, Ferlie E. Networks Organizational Learning and Knowledge Management: NHS Cancer Networks Public Money and Management. Oxford. 2006; 26(2): 87-94.
36. Orzano A, McInerney CR, Tallia AF, Scharf D, Crabtree BF. Practice performance and knowledge management. Health Care Management Review. 2008b; 33(1):21-28.
37. Orzano AJ, Ohman-Strickland P, Tallia AF, Hudson S, Balasubramanian B, Nutting P. Improving outcomes for high risk diabetics: Practices' use of information systems. Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine. 2007; 20(3):1-7.
38. Orzano A, McInerney C, Tallia AF, Scharf D, Crabtree B. A knowledge management model: Implications for enhancing quality in health care. JASIST. 2008a; 59(3): 489-505.
39. Chang H, Tsai C, Chen H. Knowledge Characteristics Implementation Measures and Performance in Taiwan Hospital Organization. International Journal of Business and Information. 2009; 4(1).
40. Bogner WC, Bansal P. Knowledge management as the basis of sustained high performance. Journal of Management Studies. 2007; 44: 165-188.
41. Darroch J. Knowledge management innovation and firm performance. Journal of Knowledge Management. 2005; 9:
42. Marqués DP, Simon JG. The effect of knowledge management practices on firm performance. Journal of Knowledge Management. 2006; 10(3):143.
Conference papers © Knowledge Globalization Institute, Pune, India, 2012
43. Gowen C, Henagan S, McFadden K. Knowledge management as a mediator for the efficacy of transformational leadership and quality management initiatives in U.S. health care. Health Care Management Review. 2009; 34(2):129Abidi S. Healthcare Knowledge Management: The Art of the Possible. Berlin: Springer-Verlag; 2004.
45. Ryu S, Ho H, Han I. Knowledge sharing behaviour of physicians in hospitals. Expert System Applications. 2003; 25:113Jackson JR. The urgent call for knowledge management in medicine. Physician Exec. 2000; 26:28-31.
47. Wickramasinghe N. Practising what we preach: are knowledge management systems in practice really knowledge management systems? Journal Bus Process Management. 2003; 9(3):295-316.
48. Davidson C, Voss P. Knowledge management – An introduction to creating competitive advantage from intellectual capital. Tandem press: 2003.
49. Pavia L. The era of knowledge in health care. Health Care Strategic Management. 2001; 19(2):12-13.
50. Masys DR. Effects of current and future information technologies on the health care workforce. Health Affairs. 2002;
51. Dawes M, Sampson. U. Knowledge management in clinical practice: a systematic review of information seeking behavior in physicians. Int J Med Inform. 2003; 71(1): 9-15.
52. Hall A, Walton G. Information overload within the health care system: a literature review. Health Inf Libr Journal.
2004; 21(2): 102-108.
53. Dwivedi A, Bali RK, James AE, Naguib R, Johnston D. Merger of knowledge Management and information technology in healthcare: opportunities and challenges In: Proceedings of IEEE Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering (CCECE) Winnipeg Canada; 2002; 1194-1199