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«Published Annually Vol. 6, No. 1 ISBN 978-0-979-7593-3-8 CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS Sawyer School of Business, Suffolk University, Boston, Massachusetts ...»

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This overview has demonstrated that there are many different stakeholders concerned for the adoption of renewable energy for purposes of economic development in the developing world. These include governments, non-governmental policy bodies, businesses, the not-for-profit sector, journalists, and academics alike. There is near universal agreement that the development and implementation of renewable energy programs—large, small, and micro in size—have the potential to lift millions out of poverty by improving educational access, health care, safety, the food and water supply and via economic development brought on by the creation of energy. While widespread adoption of solar, wind, tidal, biofuels energy programs will not cure all societal ills, these provide the single strongest leverage point to tackle an interrelated array of development issues faced the world over.

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Alliance for Rural electrification. (Undated). Green light for renewable energy in developing countries. Accessed at www.ruralelc.org.

Apergis, N., & Payne, J. E. (2010). Energy Policy. 38: 656-660.

Bornstein, D. (2007). How to Change the World. NY: Oxford University Press.

Demyrbis, A. H., & Demyrbis, I. (2007). Importance of rural bioenergy for developing countries. Energy Conservation and Management. 48 (8), 2386. Academic One File. Web 7 Nov. 2011.

Edinger, R., & Kaul, S. (2000). Humankind’s detour toward sustainability: Past, present, and future of renewable energies and electric power generation. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Review. 4, 295-313.

Conference papers © Knowledge Globalization Institute, Pune, India, 2012 Holm, D. (undated). International Social Energy Society. Renewable Energy for the Developing World. Accessed at www.whitepaper.ises.org.

Johnkingsley, E. (May 16, 2011). Developing countries have key role in renewable energy—IPCC scientist. Accessed at world and media.com/technology/developing-countires-have-key-stake-in-renewble-energy-ipcc-scie.

IEA report (2008). Report iea=pvps-t9: 09:2008.

Lior. N. (in press). Sustainable Energy Development (May 2011) with some game changers. Energy.

Lukumbo, L. 2011. Tackling climate change through renewable energy technologies. The Guardian. Dec. 2, 2011.

Martinot, E., Chaurey, A., Lew, D., Moreira, J. R., & Wamukonga, N. (2002). Renewable energy markets in developing countries.

Annual Review of Energy & Environment. 27. 309-348.

Milburn, M. P. (1996). Sun provides renewable energy alternatives for developing world. Alternatives Journal. 22 (1) 4.

Mizra, U. K., Ahmad, N., Harijan, K., & Majeed, T. (2009). Identifying and Addressing barriers to renewable energy development in Pakistan. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Review. 13. Pp. 927-931.

Muller, M.O., Stampfli, A., Dold, U., & Hammer, T. (2011). Energy autarky: A conceptual framework for sustainable regional development. Energy Policy. 39: 5800-5820.

Ogunleye, J. (2008).”Renewable Energy Initiatives [column].” Africa News Service. 6 October, 2008.

Qurashi, M.M., & Hussain, T. (2005). Publication of the Islamic Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Society. Accessed on December 4, 2011 at isesco.org.ma/English/publications/renewable%20Energy%20technologies/renewable.pdf Tollefson, J. (2011). How green is my future? UN panel foresees big growth in renewable energy, but policies will dictate just how big.

Nature. (May 12, 2011). P. 134.

United Nations Development Programme. Global Trends in Green Energy 2009.

United Nations Human Development Report (2011).

World Future Council Foundation (2009). Unleashing renewable energy power in developing countries. Hamburg.

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Reasons why energy access contributes to accomplishment of Millennium Development Goals.

“Energy is central to poverty reduction and all aspects of sustainable development. Worldwide approximately 3 billion people— almost half of humanity—still relies on traditional solid fuels, such as wood, dung, crop residues, and coal, to provide energy for cooking and heating. Some 1.5 billion have no access to electricity, and 1 billion more have access only to unreliable electricity networks. Unless massive efforts are made to expand the range and quantity of clean, reliable and affordable energy services available to poor men and women, countries are unlikely to achieve their development aspirations.

Expanding access to modern energy services helps to meet multiple MDGs.

Increased energy access helps to increase incomes and reduce hunger for poor people and poor communities (MDG 1).

Productive uses of energy can spark rural economies and significantly increase income-generating activities, livelihoods, and Conference papers © Knowledge Globalization Institute, Pune, India, 2012 micro-enterprise. Electricity and mechanical power for irrigation and agro-processing can dramatically improve agricultural productivity.

Energy access also supports educational attainment (MDG 2). Electricity can power schools and provide lighting services that extend daylight hours for study. In Nepal, communities with access to electricity spend more on education, have higher educational attainment, and are better able to retain trained teaching staff. Access to modern fuels can reduce time spent gathering fuel wood, enabling children, especially girls, to spend more time in school.





Energy access contributes to gender equality (MDG 3) by creating substantial time savings for women and girls. In Burkina Faso, diesel-based village systems for agro-processing (see box) saved women and girls an average of 2-4 hours per day—enabling women to earn more income and girls to be able to attend school Energy access contributes to improved health for poor people and communities (MDGs 4, 5, and 6). Electricity can power health clinics and enable refrigeration of vaccines and other life-saving drugs. Moreover, access to modern fuels can help prevent an estimated 2 million deaths annually from child pneumonia and adult chronic lung disease that are directly attributable to indoor burning of solid fuels.

Access to modern energy also helps promote environmental sustainability (MDG 7). Increased use of modern fuels can help reduce forest degradation and soil erosion associated with traditional fuel use. Accelerated deployment of renewable energy and energy-efficient systems can lower air pollution and decrease emissions contributing to global climate change.” IPCC report June 16, 2011. Accessed at this website.

http://srren.ipcc-wg3.de/report/IPCC_SRREN_Full_Report.pdf Conference papers © Knowledge Globalization Institute, Pune, India, 2012 Using Knowledge Management to improve performance: A case for Indian healthcare delivery system.

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Healthcare is one of the key service sectors in today’s world and it happens to be in the constant state of flux with ever changing technology, new findings and improved tools, new drugs and new methods of combating diseases. Indeed, healthcare research is one of the most knowledge intensive, fast moving and potentially beneficial to the humanity as a whole. Therefore, creation of new knowledge and continuous learning are two very important aspects of knowledge management in these organizations. The use of KM techniques in order to register and communicate and augment knowledge in health care sector thus assumes tremendous importance.

India as one of the top international medical tourism destination and with its billion people looking for affordable and quality healthcare facilities, needs a solution that can improve its immensely inadequate healthcare delivery system. Many experts all over the world have now advocated the use of KM processes and concepts to improve the performance and quality of healthcare delivery. But this concept has still not been studied and implemented in full earnest in Indian healthcare sector. In this paper, we will explore the potential of knowledge management concepts and processes to improve healthcare delivery in Indian context.

Keywords: Healthcare, Knowledge Management, India

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Knowledge management (KM) as a concept started being developed in the early 1980s. Nonaka and Takeuchi (1), discussed the importance of developing and harnessing organizational knowledge for the effectiveness of any organization. In 1997, Chase (2) defined Knowledge Management as, “the encouragement of people to share knowledge and ideas to create value-adding products and services”. While Beijerse (3) argued that organizations will be able to become more profitable, competitive and efficient by adopting a KM approach. Thus, Knowledge Management deals with the identification, collection and conversion of knowledge available within each individual in an organization into a more useable format for all people in the organization. But because of the wide ranging applications and its reach in almost all sectors, there has never been any universally accepted definition of Knowledge Management. (4) Knowledge Management can therefore be regarded as an interdisciplinary management paradigm which encompasses the entire spectrum of knowledge activities (knowledge creation, identification, codification, and dissemination (5).

Today is the age of information. With advances in technology and Information revolution, there is no dearth of information available on any topic and this trend can be seen more in knowledge intensive industries such as Healthcare. This industry presents a special challenge for any system to be adopted because of the complex nature of processes and outcomes.

Healthcare is one of the key service sectors in today’s world and it happens to be in the constant state of flux with ever Conference papers © Knowledge Globalization Institute, Pune, India, 2012 changing technology, new findings and improved tools, new drugs and new methods of combating diseases. Indeed, healthcare research is one of the most knowledge intensive, fast moving and potentially beneficial to the humanity as a whole.

It has been established that Healthcare is a knowledge intensive industry. Therefore, creation of new knowledge and continuous learning are two very important aspects of knowledge management in these organizations. Experts such as Gupta and Govindrajan (6) showed that healthcare organizations are now keen to leverage their intangible assets and intellectual capital and are trying to improve their performance by promoting learning in their organizations. Thus organizational learning is a very important outcome of knowledge management processes. The underlying concept of knowledge creation and leverage is learning. (7) And therefore experts advise that a learning based knowledge management process is necessary for acquiring existing knowledge and creating new knowledge and promote learning at individual and organizational levels. And using this process Individual learning can lead to organizational learning and further help in improved problem-solving, which in turn leads to increased capacity for action (8).

As per El Morr & Subercaze (9), Health care involves very complex structure and healthcare delivery involves large number of professionals such as physicians, specialists, nurses, radiologic technology technicians, lab technicians, counsellors, in addition to many other stakeholders such as hospital and clinic administrators, pharmaceutical companies, health care insurance companies and biomedical and pharmaceutical research communities, etc. It is but natural that all these people collaborate to provide good healthcare delivery to the patients and for this to happen they need to be on the same platform and have access to updated knowledge. The use of KM techniques in order to register and communicate and augment knowledge in health care sector thus assumes tremendous importance.

India as one of the top international medical tourism destination and with its billion people looking for affordable and quality healthcare facilities, needs a solution that can improve its immensely inadequate healthcare delivery system. Many experts all over the world have now advocated the use of KM processes and concepts to improve the performance and quality of healthcare delivery. But this concept has still not been studied and implemented in full earnest in Indian healthcare sector. In this paper, we will explore the potential of knowledge management concepts and processes to improve healthcare delivery in Indian context.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

This is the era of information and Knowledge. Organizations have moved from "make and move" based productivity to "knowledge and service" based efficiency. (10) Since the start of information revolution, the technology has rapidly moved upwards from being a mere tool for increasing productivity to a more knowledge creating and value creation in organizations.

The initial KM strategies were highly technology dependant and focused on IT based tools and processes to improve organizational efficiency. These came to be known as First generation KM strategies and aimed to make knowledge available quickly and to all people within organizations (11). But soon enough, it became apparent that this approach was reactive rather than proactive. The knowledge sharing was not enough. Something more was required. Thus the focus shifted from utilisation of already known knowledge to the creation of new knowledge and from technology orientation to process and people centric applications (12). These are the second generation KM strategies which are now being explored by organizations. Rubenstein and Geisler (13) argued that KM plays a critical part in organizational survival and attainment of sustainable competitive advantage in the face of increasingly discontinuous environmental changes. Researches in KM have converged on the theme that knowledge should be viewed as a valuable and manageable resource, at par with other tangible assets so as to utilize its full potential. (14, 15) Healthcare industry is also not far behind in this quest for organizational excellence. Over the last few years there has been an increased interest in investigating the nature and utilization of healthcare knowledge through the lens of knowledge management theories, methodologies, and technical frameworks (16, 17). It was observed by Provonost et al.(17), that the performance of hospitals is not only based on the discovery of new treatments but on the management of existing knowledge.



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