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«Published Annually Vol. 6, No. 1 ISBN 978-0-979-7593-3-8 CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS Sawyer School of Business, Suffolk University, Boston, Massachusetts ...»

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IIT Kharagpur plays a prominent role by adapting concept of E-E model which provides a platform of incubation modeling support with experienced intellectual work forces. IIT Kharagpur supports network modeling, offer mentoring and incubation to entrepreneurs through various funding programs. Rich data for technology incubation is provided by this entire network modeled entrepreneurial set-up which has assisted research work in return [20]. Health delivery model supported by IIT kharagpur based on E-E model is an example of technology adaptation. In emerging countries like India prime focus is laid on healthcare system.Government if not financially strong enough to build up healthcare facility in all remote areas. Academia plays a vital role of supporting government by creating micro-enterprises in connection with or industry partners. se health delivery models know as kiosks acts as store house of medical data and also transmits se data to referral hospitals [21].

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To run the observations on the single regression analysis we used the formula given by the equation Y1=b1X1 ……………………. (1) Where Y1 is the dependent variable: Growth of the firm, X1 is the independent variable: Quality of Incubation and b1 is the slope of the incubation quality.

The regression table below shows the result using eqn(1).

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A regression model was run for studying the effect of incubation without technology adaptation on the growth of firms. It is seen that the correlation between the growths of firm ad incubation is.604. It also shows that 36% of the growth of firms can be explained by incubation quality.

Similarly considering another independent variable and to run the observations again on single regression analysis we used the formula given by the equation Y2=b2X2 ……………………. (2) Where Y2 is the dependent variable: Growth of the firm, X2 is the independent variable: technology adaptation and b2 is the slope of technology adaptation.

Conference papers © Knowledge Globalization Institute, Pune, India, 2012 The regression table below shows the result using eqn(2).

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A regression model was run for studying the effect of technology adaptation without incubation on the growth of firms. It is seen that the correlation between the growths of firm and technology adaptation is.475. It also shows that 22% of the growth of firms can be explained by technology adaptation.

Later we run the observations on the multiple regression analysis using the formula for multiple regressions as follows:

Y=b0+b1X1+b2X2 ………………………(3) The regression table below shows the result using eqn(3).

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A regression model was run for studying the effect of quality OF Incubation and Technology adaptation on the growth of firms. Summary indicates that the amount of change in the dependent variable is determined by the two independent variables and not by one as in the single regression shown above. The R square of.396 indicates that 39% of the variance in the growth of firms can be explained by both the independent variables Incubation quality and Technology adaptation.

The regression analysis showed that the growth of firm can be explained by quality of incubation and technology adaptation individually but it can be explained better (39%) with the help of Incubation and Technology adaptation together. The low R square value is due to small sample size. The R square value can be improved by increasing the sample size. This shall give a better results showing that the growth of the firm can be enhanced by both Incubation and Technology adaptation together.


It is seen that though a good quality of incubation is provided to entrepreneurs, growth and scalability of the firm still remains a challenge without technology adaptation. Due to lack of proper incubation facility a large number of startup firms cannot flourish though they adapt new technology. Thus IIT Kharagpur provides incubation based on Education-Enterprise model which also assists the startups in technology adaptation. This incubation model provides a sustainable and scalable growth of firms.

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In future we would like to propose a co-incubation network and study the effect of the coincubation model on the growth of firms.

1. Sean M. Hackett1 David M. Dilts, “A Real Options-Driven theory of Business Incubation”, Journal of Technology Transfer, 29, 41-54, 2004.

2. Cupl, R. P. Guidelines for Incubator Development. Economic Development Review, 8(4), 19-23, 1990.

3. Sohel Ahmad and Roger G. Schroeder, “Knowledge management through technology strategy: implications for competitiveness”, Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, 22(1), 6-24,2011

4. Zahra, S., Sisodia, R. and Marne, B., "Exploiting dynamic links between competitive and technology strategies", European Management Journal, 17(2), 188-203. 1999.

5. Josef Brüderl and Peter Preisendörfer, “Network Support and Success of Newly Founded Businesses”, Small Business Economics 10, 213-225, 1998.

6. Allen, D.N and McCluskey, R., “Structure, policy, services and performance in business incubator industry.Entrepreneurship, ory & Practices. 15 (2), 61-77,1990

7. myventurepad.com, accessed on 30th June 2011

8. www.caypenmag.com accessed on 30th, June2011

9. Mian, S., “Assessing and managing university technology business incubator: an integrative framework”, Journal of Business Venturing, 12, 251-285, 1997.

10. Tamasy, C., “Rethinking technology-oriented business incubators: developing a robust policy instrument for entrepreneurship, innovation, and regional development”, Growth and Change, 28 (3), 460-473, 2007

11. Premkumar and M. Roberts, “Adoption of new information technologies in rural small businesses”, OMEGA, International Journal of Management Science, 27, 467-484. 1999.

12. Jeanette van Akkeren and Angèle L.M. Cavaye, “Factors Affecting Entry-Level Internet Technology Adoption by Small Business In Australia: An Empirical Study”, Proc. 10th Australasian Conference on Information Systems, 1999

13. Clive Shepard, “Does Social Media have a place in workplace learning?” Emerald Group, 27 (2), 3-4, 2011.

14. Li Jin, Alexandra Psarrou, S Cao, Y Chen, “Trends on interactive platforms for social media through Web2. 0, westminsterresearch.wmin.ac.uk,2009

15. Hansen, M.T., Chesbrough, et al., “Networked Incubators: Hothouses of NewEconomy”. Harvard Business Review.

September-October, 74-83, 2000

16. Prahalad, C K, Fortune at Bottom of Pyramid: Eradicating Poverty through Profits. New Delhi: Pearson Education/Wharton School Publishing. 2005 17. “Novel ‘Education and Enterprise’ Model Around Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in Indian context” EBRF July 2009.

18. Liedholm C, Mead DC - “Studies in Development Economics”. New York:Routledge, 1999.

19. Punit Saurabh, Amrita., Dhrubes Biswas, “ Need for co-creating Sustainable Business Models Under Education-Enterprise Conference papers © Knowledge Globalization Institute, Pune, India, 2012 (E-E) Framework”, EBRF Conference 2008, Finland

20. Amrita, Punit Saurabh and Dhrubes Biswas, “Emergent business models and technology among recent start-ups of a higher educational institute of an emerging nation” EBRF Conference, September 22-24, 2009, Finland.

21. Amrita, Parswati Das, Punit Saurabh and Dhrubes Biswas, “An Entrepreneurship Driven Wellness Business Model in NonMetro Indian Cities”,. Laurea Publications A2, 226-245. Comb2010i, Vantaa, Finland India had a rich tradition of crafts. The production technique, patterns and the materials used varied significantly from one region to another. Bastaria, a unique craftsmanship from the tribal district of Bastar was one among the many forms. FORMS, started in the year 1993-94 had transformed the bastaria craft by relocating a fraction of artisans from the tribal district of Bastar to Nagpur, a larger city in Central India. The successes of FORMS rested in its ability to introduce contemporary designs and newer materials, while retaining the unique bastaria craftsmanship. Not being part of the Bastar cluster presented unique opportunities and challenges to FORMS. Moving the artisans to a larger city allowed FORMS to use mass production techniques wherever it was necessary, thus enhancing the efficiency.

However owing to the global slowdown, the off take in the markets that FORMS traditionally operated had come down by over 40%. Since FORMS exported most of its produce, this slow down had a significant impact. To tide over, FORMS had renewed its focus on handcrafted furniture for the domestic market and turnkey projects for custom-made wood furniture for residential luxury housing segment. However a major cause of concern was the inexpensive near look-alike designs produced by the Chinese manufacturers, which Rukshad (co-promoter of Forms) and others believed to be a greater threat. This had generated a renewed debate at FORMS on the sustainability of the methods as well as sustainability of an entity outside the cluster.

Key Words: Artisans, Cluster, Crafts, Sustainability.

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India has a rich tradition of crafts. Though production technique, patterns and materials used had changed over time, it has largely remained unorganized. Small Scale Industry (SSI) sector accounted for over 40% of India’s Industrial output and little over 35% of exports. Handicrafts comprised of a significant part of this chunk. Excluding hand knotted carpets, handicrafts exports were estimated to be over INR 8000 crores for the year 2008-09. Art metal ware, hand printed textiles & scarves and embroidered & crocheted goods accounted for a significant share of the exports. United States of America, United Kingdom and Canada cumulatively accounted for over 35% of handicrafts imports. Export Promotion Council for Handicrafts (EPCH) was established in the year 1986 -87. There were over 6600 registered members with the EPCH.

According to UNIDO, there were over 2000 rural and artisan based clusters in India. Handicraft clusters were located in clearly identifiable locations and specialized in the specific products and production techniques. Some of these clusters were large and contributed to as much as 90% of the output in the category. For instance the gems and jewellery cluster of Surat and Mumbai.

However most clusters, primarily handicrafts clusters were very small with no more than 100 artisans.

Most clusters shared the following characteristics;

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Given that the export value realization for handicrafts was very high, there were renewed efforts at both the state government level and Government of India (GOI) to upgrade the infrastructure, modernization and product diversity.

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Bastar was one among the 15 districts in the newly formed state of Chhattisgarh. In the year 2000, Government of India had carved out 16 tribal districts from the state of Madhya Pradesh to form the state of Chhattisgarh. Jagdalpur was the administrative head quarters of the Bastar district. Of the estimated 1.3 million inhabitants of the state, little over one third was tribal. Prominent among them were Marias & Muria gouds, Dhruvaas, Bhatras and Halbas. The society was largely organized based on the profession as; Ghadwas (blacksmith), Mahar or Gandas (weavers), Chamar (leather work) and Kollar or Sundi (distillers).

Terracotta, woodcrafts, bamboo craft and Dhokra (also known as Dokra) had attained significant popularity from among the trial art forms. Ghadwa’s had mastered the art of Dokra over the years. In the local language, Ghadwa also meant ‘space to create’. Dokra was non-ferrous metal casting using lost wax casting technique. Indians were known to use this unique technique for the last 4000 years.

There were two main processes of lost wax casting; solid casting, and hollow casting. Hallow casting was common with Ghadwa’s. In this process, a clay core which was approximately the shape of the final cast image was prepared and covered by a layer of pure bee wax. The wax is then shaped and carved with intricate designs and decorations. It was then covered with clay, which took the negative form of the wax on the inside and thus became a mould for the metal that would be poured. Drain ducts were left for the wax to flow, which melted when the clay was cooked. The wax was then replaced by the molten metal, which hardened between the core and the inner surface of the mould. The outer layer of the clay was then chipped off and the metal icon was subjected to subsequent polishing for a glittering look. (See the accompanying video)

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“Having worked in advertising, the idea of transforming a traditional art form and making it a commercial success excited me”.

Rukshad, Cofounder, FORMS After attaining a degree in liberal arts, Rukshad had joined a start up advertising agency. Much to his disappointment, the agency went out of business three years later. Having got a taste of creative work, he was looking for more. The proposal to work with rural artisans and transform the traditional art form to suit the tastes of the global buyers excited him. Thus FORMS was born in the year 1993-94.

FORMS set up a small workshop in the heart of Bastar. Predominantly a tribal area, Bastar consistently figured in the bottom five percentile of the most backward districts in India. It trailed on all parameters of the human development index. The tribal’s had very little interaction with the outside world. The art form, popularly known as bastaria predominantly used wood and brass. Being very religious, gods they worshiped and the nature largely inspired their designs. Metal work, mostly of brass was more intricate than the wooden carvings.

“There was no trace of modernity. What we take for granted in a modern society, were all missing” Md. Sharif, Production Head, FORMS “We were seen as ‘not one among them’. Gaining their trust was very important. Besides, the tribal’s were highly whimsical.

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