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«Published Annually Vol. 6, No. 1 ISBN 978-0-979-7593-3-8 CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS Sawyer School of Business, Suffolk University, Boston, Massachusetts ...»

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Then thorny shrubs of Prospris Julisflora tree were stacked tightly onto its various wooden compartments and at the top there is a wooden trough having numerous holes. All wooden structures- frames, compartments and trough were made waterproof by applying eco friendly cashew nutshell liquid found in the honeycomb structure of the cashew nutshell; the fishing communities use this oil to protect their boats from salt water for past few hundred years. The effluents were lifted, using 7.5 hp motor, to the wooden trough and is allowed to trickle down the stacks of the thorny shrubs. Following this the effluents percolated through the shrubs and evaporate with the help of wind and sun, which is available in abundance in Tirupur.

As much as 100,000 litre of water with 30,000 TDS ppm of salt treated in such manner gave an output of 10,000 litres with 200,000 TDS ppm salt. The remaining 10,000 litre was converted into solid waste using a crystallizer in a chilling unit, thus attaining zero liquid discharge.

–  –  –

The model plant has dimensions 20 meter length and 10 meter height and 2 meter width.

Tirupur being located very close to the Palaghat, the wind pass of the Western Ghats, this creates a Venturi effect allowing wind to blow strongly, throughout the year. To ensure that the strong winds do not carry any effluents at the exit points curtains made of finely meshed coconut coir are placed on the wind exit side of the EGIE.

th On 18 July the IIT Madras team submitted their observations the extracts are given bellow, which are self explanatoryConference papers © Knowledge Globalization Institute, Pune, India, 2012 The daily newspaper The Hindu has carried an article in their Tuesday 19th July paper declaring that “Owners of dyeing units in Tirupur Knitwear cluster had something to cheer about on Monday evening when they received the news that Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) – Madras certified as viable the Eco Green Industrial Evaporator (EGIE) developed by the research team of NIFT-TEA knitwear Institute here.” The article further quoted NIFT-TEA Institute chairman Mr. Raj M. Shanmugham “The new technology could be used by the dyeing unit owners as a replacement for the mechanical evaporators, which had been causing immense operational bottlenecks for the entrepreneurs in their attempt to achieve ZLD” This fact changed the belief that ZLD is IMPOSSIBLE. The team GTM, it seems did not read impossible as single word but broke into two, to read I’M POSSIBLE!

Conference papers © Knowledge Globalization Institute, Pune, India, 2012 This model has been working for more than 6 months now. The Agriculture Minister, President of Noyyal River Ayuktdars Protection Association, members of TNPCB, all have agreed Eco Green Industrial Evaporator (EGIE) is an eco friendly solution to the existing crisis. The motor of the Eco Green Industrial Evaporator is currently uses the conventional electric power supply,but to make it total environment friendly GTM team are in process of research to replace the power source of the 7.5 hp lift motor by making the effluent itself workable using the biotechnology. They are also contemplating other natural sources like using a standalone wind generator or photovoltaic panels to use solar energy or a combination of both.

Further research is in process by GTM to purify the resultant salt with a view to reuse the same has also yielded encouraging results so as to eliminate the difficulty in sludge disposal.

–  –  –

Is environment friendly and helps improve the surrounding ecosystem by increasing soil moisture content which is good for agriculture. It is not only environmental friendly; it is also agriculture friendly and industry friendly option to dispose of the

industrial effluents:

Environment Friendly:

Conventional mechanical evaporator uses enormous quantity of fire wood – Tirupur alone require 3300 tons of firewood per day – whereas, by switching to EGIE, the requirement of firewood for evaporation is entirely eliminated thereby minimizing deforestation. The conventional mechanical evaporator consumes enormous amount of electricity thereby causing excess carbon emission to the environment – whereas EGIE require very little electricity thereby minimizing carbon emission.

Agriculture Friendly:

EGIE contemplates evaporating the concentrated brine by natural process using wind and solar energy, facilitating retention of soil moisture in the vicinity of the plant thereby enabling high vegetation growth; Switching over to EGIE will permanently ensure absolutely zero discharge of effluent into the river so that damage to cultivable soil is eliminated;

The increased volumes of evaporation on a day-to-day basis, there is ample possibility that there will be better rainfall in the surrounding area;

Industry friendly:

EGIE facilitates evaporation of concentrated brine solution in a most efficient and cost effective way using natural resources, providing an almost zero cost alternative to the existing expensive mechanical evaporators. The major advantage of EGIE is that it facilitates cleaning large volumes of water through natural process using natural resources such as wind and solar energy

–  –  –

In comparison to the existing RO system using mechanical evaporator:

1. Cost effective

2. User Friendly.

3. Approximate savings for 10 ton capacity unit is Rs. 70000 per day

4. Around 2100 units of electricity is required to operate mechanical evaporator whereas, only 144 units is sufficient for EGIE

5. Approximately 567000 Kgs of coal or 837600 Kgs of Bio Mass required operating multiple evaporator of one unit of 10 ton capacity.

6. The feed water into Crystallizer from Mechanical evaporator is 45º to 50º C, whereas the feed water into Crystallizer from EGIE is around 20º to 22º C.

7. Further research is being conducted by GTM to purify the resultant salt with a view to reuse the same has also yielded encouraging results. This will eliminate the difficulty in sludge disposal as well.

Eco Green Industrial Evaporator implemented in all units can become a permanent solution to the long litigation between industry and farmers, stretched for more than two decades creating an atmosphere conducive for industry as well as agriculture.

–  –  –

Given below are some of the possible questions that might arise while appraising the EGIE and the answers for the same:

1) How the evaporation does takes place at a faster rate as compared to the normal solar pond?

In a solar pond, water is stored in the pond which is being evaporated using the solar energy depending on the surface area of the solar pond and the gravity of the solar energy. Normally evaporation takes place around 4.5 litres per square meter of the solar pond.

However, what we do in the case of EGIE the secret lies in increasing the surface area by closely stalking the thorn plants in the wooden structure. The water flows through the stalks of twigs and sticks wherein the surface area is increased thereby facilitating huge volume of water evaporation. Test results shows that as much as 200 litres of water is being evaporated per meter of the EGIE structure.

2) Whether there will be spillage of effluent in the vicinity of the plant thereby damaging the soil around the area?

Conference papers © Knowledge Globalization Institute, Pune, India, 2012 The plant is engineered in such a way that a minimum of 2.5 meters width is provided so that any spillage of water is restricted within the structure of the plant. Also the structure is filled tightly with thorn twigs and the water flows through the twigs and ultimately collected at the bottom of the plant and taken to the effluent tank for recycling. Control mechanisms are put in place to control the flow of the effluent being poured from the top of the structure which will be adjusted depending on the wind velocity. Also we have given adequate provision of 10 to 15 meters space in all directions around the plant which itself takes care of any possible drift in the extreme wind situation. Besides, we have also installed coir based drift arrester that totally eliminates the chance of effluent spillage in the vicinity.

3) Whether there will be air pollution in the atmosphere because of the huge volumes of effluent water being evaporated using the plant?

The feed effluent contains only water and some inorganic substances because all organic substances are removed in the primary and secondary treatment processes such as anaerobic, aerobic and ozonation processes. Hence, because of the evaporation process, only water molecules are evaporating and all the inorganic substances remain the output effluent which upon reaching a particular stage of TDS will be taken to the crystallizer for salt recovery. Hence, there is no question of the air in the atmosphere getting polluted because of this evaporation process.

4) Whether there will be hazardous or toxic elements in the feed water and its dispersion in the air?

Feed water was subjected to lab testing and was found that there were no hazardous and toxic elements present in the feed water.

5) Whether there will be any Health Hazard, Skin irritation or eye irritation to the people in the surroundings?

As already stated, the feed effluent does not contain any hazardous or toxic elements. Besides, since the effluent also passes through Ultra Filtration (UF) any presence of bacteria in the effluent is totally eliminated. Also there is no effluent carry in the atmosphere so as to create any toxic effects to the people. Hence there is no possibility of health hazard, skin or eye irritation to the people in the surroundings.

6) Whether there will be any smell or bad odor around this evaporator?

There is no odor generating gas present in the feed effluent water and hence there will be no smell or bad odor around the evaporator plant.

7) Whether there will be salt deposits or clogging inside the thorns that will impair the performance of the evaporator in the long run?

The climate data reveals that the average rainfall around the area of Tiruppur is around 700 mm per annum. So the impact due to rain is only very insignificant.

Also in all the installations, we are planning to have surplus capacity of the evaporator to accommodate rainy season and winter season. Besides, we also plan to have storage capacity of feed water for not less than three to four days so as to restart the evaporator after the rainfall is over.

Even in the unlikely scenario of continuous rains, the units can stop the production for some time and re-start after the stoppage of rains – the break can be effectively used for carrying out periodical maintenance of dyeing machinery.

9) What will be the estimated life of the plant? Will there be a need to periodically change the thorn twigs inside the plant?

Generally damage to wooden structure is caused by termites. Also we have painted the wooden structure using Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL) which is anti-termite, insecticide and also it is acid and alkali resistant. Because of the fact that entire plant will be under perennial flow of salt water, there is no possibility of termite attack for the plant. Similarly the thorn plants also being perennially fed with salt water and expected to last for significantly long years. Our research reveals that in Germany similar plants are being operated for more than hundred years without any substantial maintenance.

1. Garment exports constitute very substantial part of Tirupur Industrial Activity – for which Bleaching and Dyeing of fabrics is one of the key manufacturing processes in the process chain of a garment.

2. Ensuring Zero Liquid Discharge (ZLD) has become an indispensible pre-requisite for any dyeing unit pursuant to strict monitoring and enforcement of pollution norms by courts.

3. Nowadays, courts are extremely stringent in regard to any environmental issues –Closure of Dyeing Units will obviously result in serious disturbance in the Export Trade thereby bringing the economy of Tiruppur to a complete stand still causing several sociological issues.

4. Fabric dyeing units have been trying to achieve this ZLD for the last several years - though with very little success.

5. The Mechanical Evaporator Methodology that is being practiced by CETPs and IETPs is flawed with several technical and operational constraints besides being exorbitantly expensive.

6. The alternate choice of carrying effluent through pipelines to nearest sea will mean about 450 kms stretch of pipelines which will need at least 7 large pumping stations, in between, to keep the flow of effluent moving towards the sea shore. It will entail a huge initial and periodic maintenance cost to the government. There will be delays and worries as the land which will be required to construct the pipe line may not be given easily by the farmers.

7. Eco-Green Industrial Evaporator methodology has the potential to solve all the above pollution related issues of Tirupur by providing for a simple and cost effective alternative methodology for evaporating the effluent brine solution of fabric dyeing factories.

8. The success of EGIE will not only solve the gruesome problem that is endangering the survival of textile industry of Tirupur, by a process which is environmental friendly, carbon emission free and in a cost effective way, but also enhance the Brand India Image of the Country in the eyes of the outside world.

–  –  –

1. An article “Towards zero discharge” written by Bharat ¬Lal Seth, Sumana Narayanan published in Down to Earth on 31st May,

2. An article “Court order on dyeing units’ closure chokes Tirupur Garment sector” published in Business on Line

3. An article “Effluent ghost haunts Tirupur farmers again” written by R. Vimal Kumar published in the Hindu dated 21st June,

4. Green Textile Movement data base

5. Data collected from Freelook Dyeing where the test was conducted

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