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«Published Annually Vol. 6, No. 1 ISBN 978-0-979-7593-3-8 CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS Sawyer School of Business, Suffolk University, Boston, Massachusetts ...»

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As discussed in Scenario II, the entrepreneur should tie up with other farmers who are providing primary and secondary tillage operation. With a mutual agreement they can work more effectively and also add more value to the customer. Like instead of INR 2100, the famer would pay INR 1600 for the same operation. From a macro perspective, the entrepreneur with improved field capacity could cover more area too. For annual utilization of 500 hr, he could cater to 500 acre of operation. This would substantially improve the water consumption scene in the local area.

Government point of view:

To raise public awareness and involvement in water conservation and environmental activities, the mass media ranging from local folk to electronic media should serve as a vital role. To raise public awareness on latent issues and to promote people's Participation, in environmental activities and conservation of natural resources, development of environmental education resource material and use of traditional and modem media of communication need to be strengthened.

Existing research and development efforts need to be strengthened to develop the appropriate low cost technologies considering the possibilities, opened up by GPS/ GSM, advanced engineering, information and material technologies and remote sensing, tailored to the local environmental and socio-economic conditions.

Existing laws and enforcement mechanisms should be subjected to periodic review to evaluate their adequacy and efficacy in the light of changed circumstances and experience.

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An improved laser-controlled land leveling operating model is required having a high level of accuracy and low cost.

Furthermore, use of rotavator and the automatic surveying system and the auxiliary decision support system will be developed in our next study to extend its functions. Advanced and appropriate laser-controlled leveling technologies have good potential for application in precision farmland management and in water-saving irrigation.

Effective government control and policies are required to make this model successful.

Implementation of the aims and objectives of sustainable policy will need support policies and systems for filling up of the gaps in the existing institutional set up, legislative instruments and enforcement mechanisms, research and development, mobilization of financial resources, creation of public awareness and training of professionals.

Conference papers © Knowledge Globalization Institute, Pune, India, 2012


Ct = total cost of production Cp = cost for primary tillage Cs = cost for secondary tillage Cl = cost for laser leveling Cw = cost for water consumption Ci = cost for inputs like fertilizer and pesticides Ch = cost for harvesting INR- Indian Rupees

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Black, C. A., D. D. Evans, L. E. Ensminger, and R. C. Dinauer, (1965).

Methods of analysis (part 1). Am. Soc. of Agron., Inc. Publ. Madison,Wisc., U.S.A.

CPTI (1999). Manual for Laser Leveling. Cambodia Project Tractor Implement, International Rice Research Institute. Agric.


El-Khatib, S. I. (1992). Effect of degree of accuracy of land leveling on Performance and efficiency of some farm machinery. M.

Sc. Thesis Faculty of Agric. Ain Shams Univ., Egypt. Pp 50-51.

El-Hammamy, A. A. (1988). Precision land leveling: An effective tool from on-farm water management. First conference on irrigation Improvement Cairo, Egypt.

El-Sayed, S. G.(2004). A study on Increasing the Laser Unit Efficiency Under Egyptian Condition. M. Sc. Thesis Fac. of Agric., Zagazig Univ., Egypt. Pp 56-57.

Gabber, K. A. E. (2001). Precision land leveling by using laser Technology under the conditions of Fayoum Governorate. M. Sc.

Thesis, Soils and Water Dept., Fac. of Agric. at Fayoum, Cairo Univ., Egypt. Pp 60-61.

Jensen, M. E. (1980). Design and operation of farm irrigation systems.

The Transaction of Amer. Sec. Agric. Eng. Vol 23.

Mostafa, M.M., EL-Gindy, A., Saif-Elyazal M.N. and El-Khatib, S.I. (1993). Laser land leveling efficiency and power requirements.

International conference on technological techniques for handling Agricultural products 5-10 April 1993. Cairo Uni.Cairo, Egypt pp 58-75.

Conference papers © Knowledge Globalization Institute, Pune, India, 2012 Zayed. M. F. (2005). Modification of laser technology in farm Application. M. Sc.Thesis, Fac. of Agric., Mansoura Univ., Egypt. Pp 83-84.

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Western countries over the decades have used innovation to grow and sustain their economies. The uses of innovation along with entrepreneurship - in business, in education and in family life- have resulted in technological advances, increases in standard of living and overall growth in different sectors of their economy.

Using the same pattern now emerging countries like China, India, South Korea, Brazil, and Russia are adding spark to their economies and are showing regular growth in their GDP.

The paper will examine how these countries have used this approach in introducing new products, new services and created new entrepreneurial opportunities for their citizens thus raising their standard of living, bringing stability to the country and raising their innovation and happiness index. India, for example, has declared 2010-2020 to be the decade of innovation.

The paper will also examine the role of fitness, culture and spirituality of these countries and how this approach adds a new dimension in this pursuit.

Keywords: Innovation, New Products, Spirituality, Emerging countries.

Background: A list released recently “What were the greatest inventions of all time” shows that out of 300 inventions included in the list 85%+ are from USA, about 10% from Europe and remaining from the rest of the world. (Edinformatics) Emerging economies have taken note of it, realize that one of the best ways to grow their economies is through innovation/inventions and are putting new policies in place to achieve that goal.

Here is what some emerging countries are doing.

South Korea and Brazil National Innovation Systems: A case study of South Korea and Brazil (Ho and Luban) indicate that in the past decades, the Korean government has shifted its stance from having a leading hand in R & D activities from the 1960’s and 1970s to the encouragement of private firms to perform R & D. In 1980, 62% of R & D was performed by public institutes, along with 9.2% by Universities and only 28.8% by private firms. By 1990, this had dramatically shifted to 74% of research performed by private firms (an increase of 45.2%) whilst the public sector only performed 18.5% (drop of 43.5%) (Chung).

The same situation existed in 1970s Brazil- i.e. public R & D dominating private R & D- however, the trend remained. Brazilian firms have showed little interest in performing R & D. Dahlman and Frishtak indicate that the number of firms that declared R & D in their tax returns totaled 1,050 in 1976/77, dipped to 780 in 1981/83 and recovered to 1,090 in 1985. In the same study state that the Electronics was the most active at 34.9% and the vehicles sector second with 23%. (Dahlman and Frischtak)

Conference papers © Knowledge Globalization Institute, Pune, India, 2012

The type of R & D performed in Korea has shifted towards technology development over basic. Basic research declined from 22.9% in 1970 to 13.2% in 1996. In addition, the Korean state founded companies, the chaebois, had reached the technological frontier from reverse engineering and efforts were poured into R & D to gain international competitiveness. This was a key strategic move for Korean firms since they had small domestic economy compared to Brazil’s (and most industrialized countries that they were competing against) and therefore had to compete in foreign markets.

Russia According to a recent article Russia Plans to Promote Technology Innovations (Kramer) According to this article Russia has floated a new approach to catching up with the West in technology, a problem that has bedeviled the economy here for decades in spite of the country’s rich tradition in science. (Kramer) The initiative is the latest in a long line of policies trying to free Russia from the boom-and-bust cycles of commodity prices by making better use of the talents of its citizens.

The government will order ministries and state companies to use more of their procurement budgets to buy products that qualify as “innovative” and that are made in Russia.

Translating Russia’s bounty of scientific talent into popular, or even functional, products is a problem that has vexed the country since Soviet times. In a recent survey by Thomson Reuters, Russia lagged far behind China, Brazil and India in registered patents, even though the country’s officials project a self-image of scientific accomplishment. It is now recognized as an acute economic vulnerability because about 80 percent of exports are natural resources like oil and metals, making Russia susceptible to their price swings.

Russia’s Innovation gap

Before the 1990s, Russia was widely regarded as a science and technology powerhouse, able to hold its own in fields such as theoretical physics and nuclear technology and a world leader in space technologies. The collapse of the Soviet technology, particularly the industrial/military complex, to which most Russian R & D investment was directed, brought down a system that was based largely on technological prestige and bureaucratic planning.

The only type of R & D funding that has grown substantially in the past decades in foreign funding, which more than doubled to 10.3% of the total in 1999 (up from 4.6% in 1995), thanks to grants and foreign investment. But the danger of such foreign funding is that it is volatile and subject to changing business perceptions, as well as competition from other countries.

In fact, despite the magnitude of its assets and its world-class achievements in several scientific disciplines, the output of the Russian science and technology sector is rather modest. Russia ranks seventh in the world for the number of scientific publications its produces, around 3.5% of the total. And the volume of its resident patent applications has continually decreased over the 1990s (one per 10,000 population in 1997 compared with 4.5 in the United States, 2.5 in the EU and 3.8 in Nordic countries).

China Unlocking Innovation in China Can China become a nation of innovators? Its government hopes so. It has a plan to make China an innovative society by 2020.

Increased innovation, it argues, will be vital for China to move up the technological ladder to produce high-value goods and services. Indeed, homegrown innovation could be vital to solve many of China’s challenges, such as energy productivity and pollution, and to position Chinese companies competitively in the global market. (Economist)

Conference papers © Knowledge Globalization Institute, Pune, India, 2012

The pursuit of these goals is transforming China. No longer just the workshop of the world, the country is also becoming a laboratory, research and development (R & D) centre and consumer market. It stands out as leading R & D base for work in areas such as stem cell research and nanotechnology. China now publishes more academic papers on nanotechnology than any other country.

The government is spurring this trend. Over the last decade, China has increased its spending on R & D by 20% per year. Its target for overall spending on R & D (public and private) is 2.5% of GDP by 2020, up from 1.5% in 2007. This compares with 3.8% in Sweden in 2006, 3.4% in Japan in 2006 and 2.7% in the US in 2007. The government also foresees reducing China’s reliance on foreign technology to 30%, down from the current level of around 50%.

No patent law existed in China until 1985, and the country has deserved reputation for trampling on intellectual-property rights. But that could be changing. Anxious to promote domestic innovation, the Chinese government has created an ecosystem of incentives for its people to file patents. (Economist) Such incentives produce results. In 2008 Huawei filed more international patents than any other firm in the world. China’s overall patent filings grew by 26% a year between 2003 and 2009, says a new report from Thomson Reuters, an information service. Growth was much slower elsewhere: 6% in America, 5% in South Korea, 4% in Europe and 1% in Japan.

. A recent report (In Innovation Race, China is not yet a rival) by Thomson Reuters tries to draw a more accurate link between corporate patent filings and real innovation. It does so by measuring not only the number of patents a company files, but also the influence, global reach and success of its patents. (Lohr) The result is a list of the 100 most innovative companies in the world, not ranked, just in our out. Most of the names on the list are no surprise. Forty percent are from America, including IBM, Apple, Microsoft, Boeing, Exxon Mobile and Intel.

One surprise: not a single Chinese company is on the list. Yet China has become the most prolific patent filer in the world, pursuing a national plan to become an economy based on innovation rather than imitation.

But patent numbers-like standardized test scores- aren’t everything. To rank high on the Thomson Reuters innovation-weighted scale, patents must meet other criteria: success (ratio of patents filed to those granted in the last three years), global (filed in the four main patent offices, United States, Europe, Japan and China) and influence (how often patents are cited by others).

The 100 innovative companies selected by Thomson Reuters did well in 2010. They added 400,000 jobs, while sales on average rose 13 percent. It does appear to be more than coincidence, even though there is a lot more to corporate success than filing high-quality patents. (Lohr)

Rural India and National Innovation Foundation

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