WWW.ABSTRACT.DISLIB.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Abstracts, online materials
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 37 | 38 || 40 | 41 |   ...   | 77 |

«Published Annually Vol. 6, No. 1 ISBN 978-0-979-7593-3-8 CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS Sawyer School of Business, Suffolk University, Boston, Massachusetts ...»

-- [ Page 39 ] --

As discussed in Scenario II, the entrepreneur should tie up with other farmers who are providing primary and secondary tillage operation. With a mutual agreement they can work more effectively and also add more value to the customer. Like instead of INR 2100, the famer would pay INR 1600 for the same operation. From a macro perspective, the entrepreneur with improved field capacity could cover more area too. For annual utilization of 500 hr, he could cater to 500 acre of operation. This would substantially improve the water consumption scene in the local area.

Government point of view:

To raise public awareness and involvement in water conservation and environmental activities, the mass media ranging from local folk to electronic media should serve as a vital role. To raise public awareness on latent issues and to promote people's Participation, in environmental activities and conservation of natural resources, development of environmental education resource material and use of traditional and modem media of communication need to be strengthened.

Existing research and development efforts need to be strengthened to develop the appropriate low cost technologies considering the possibilities, opened up by GPS/ GSM, advanced engineering, information and material technologies and remote sensing, tailored to the local environmental and socio-economic conditions.

Existing laws and enforcement mechanisms should be subjected to periodic review to evaluate their adequacy and efficacy in the light of changed circumstances and experience.

–  –  –

An improved laser-controlled land leveling operating model is required having a high level of accuracy and low cost.

Furthermore, use of rotavator and the automatic surveying system and the auxiliary decision support system will be developed in our next study to extend its functions. Advanced and appropriate laser-controlled leveling technologies have good potential for application in precision farmland management and in water-saving irrigation.

Effective government control and policies are required to make this model successful.

Implementation of the aims and objectives of sustainable policy will need support policies and systems for filling up of the gaps in the existing institutional set up, legislative instruments and enforcement mechanisms, research and development, mobilization of financial resources, creation of public awareness and training of professionals.

Conference papers © Knowledge Globalization Institute, Pune, India, 2012

DEFINITIONS, ACRONYMS, ABBREVIATIONS

Ct = total cost of production Cp = cost for primary tillage Cs = cost for secondary tillage Cl = cost for laser leveling Cw = cost for water consumption Ci = cost for inputs like fertilizer and pesticides Ch = cost for harvesting INR- Indian Rupees

–  –  –

Black, C. A., D. D. Evans, L. E. Ensminger, and R. C. Dinauer, (1965).

Methods of analysis (part 1). Am. Soc. of Agron., Inc. Publ. Madison,Wisc., U.S.A.

CPTI (1999). Manual for Laser Leveling. Cambodia Project Tractor Implement, International Rice Research Institute. Agric.

Eng.Division LOSBANOS, LAGUNA, PHILIPPINS. pp 7-8.

El-Khatib, S. I. (1992). Effect of degree of accuracy of land leveling on Performance and efficiency of some farm machinery. M.

Sc. Thesis Faculty of Agric. Ain Shams Univ., Egypt. Pp 50-51.

El-Hammamy, A. A. (1988). Precision land leveling: An effective tool from on-farm water management. First conference on irrigation Improvement Cairo, Egypt.

El-Sayed, S. G.(2004). A study on Increasing the Laser Unit Efficiency Under Egyptian Condition. M. Sc. Thesis Fac. of Agric., Zagazig Univ., Egypt. Pp 56-57.

Gabber, K. A. E. (2001). Precision land leveling by using laser Technology under the conditions of Fayoum Governorate. M. Sc.

Thesis, Soils and Water Dept., Fac. of Agric. at Fayoum, Cairo Univ., Egypt. Pp 60-61.

Jensen, M. E. (1980). Design and operation of farm irrigation systems.

The Transaction of Amer. Sec. Agric. Eng. Vol 23.

Mostafa, M.M., EL-Gindy, A., Saif-Elyazal M.N. and El-Khatib, S.I. (1993). Laser land leveling efficiency and power requirements.

International conference on technological techniques for handling Agricultural products 5-10 April 1993. Cairo Uni.Cairo, Egypt pp 58-75.

Conference papers © Knowledge Globalization Institute, Pune, India, 2012 Zayed. M. F. (2005). Modification of laser technology in farm Application. M. Sc.Thesis, Fac. of Agric., Mansoura Univ., Egypt. Pp 83-84.

–  –  –

Western countries over the decades have used innovation to grow and sustain their economies. The uses of innovation along with entrepreneurship - in business, in education and in family life- have resulted in technological advances, increases in standard of living and overall growth in different sectors of their economy.

Using the same pattern now emerging countries like China, India, South Korea, Brazil, and Russia are adding spark to their economies and are showing regular growth in their GDP.

The paper will examine how these countries have used this approach in introducing new products, new services and created new entrepreneurial opportunities for their citizens thus raising their standard of living, bringing stability to the country and raising their innovation and happiness index. India, for example, has declared 2010-2020 to be the decade of innovation.





The paper will also examine the role of fitness, culture and spirituality of these countries and how this approach adds a new dimension in this pursuit.

Keywords: Innovation, New Products, Spirituality, Emerging countries.

Background: A list released recently “What were the greatest inventions of all time” shows that out of 300 inventions included in the list 85%+ are from USA, about 10% from Europe and remaining from the rest of the world. (Edinformatics) Emerging economies have taken note of it, realize that one of the best ways to grow their economies is through innovation/inventions and are putting new policies in place to achieve that goal.

Here is what some emerging countries are doing.

South Korea and Brazil National Innovation Systems: A case study of South Korea and Brazil (Ho and Luban) indicate that in the past decades, the Korean government has shifted its stance from having a leading hand in R & D activities from the 1960’s and 1970s to the encouragement of private firms to perform R & D. In 1980, 62% of R & D was performed by public institutes, along with 9.2% by Universities and only 28.8% by private firms. By 1990, this had dramatically shifted to 74% of research performed by private firms (an increase of 45.2%) whilst the public sector only performed 18.5% (drop of 43.5%) (Chung).

The same situation existed in 1970s Brazil- i.e. public R & D dominating private R & D- however, the trend remained. Brazilian firms have showed little interest in performing R & D. Dahlman and Frishtak indicate that the number of firms that declared R & D in their tax returns totaled 1,050 in 1976/77, dipped to 780 in 1981/83 and recovered to 1,090 in 1985. In the same study state that the Electronics was the most active at 34.9% and the vehicles sector second with 23%. (Dahlman and Frischtak)

Conference papers © Knowledge Globalization Institute, Pune, India, 2012

The type of R & D performed in Korea has shifted towards technology development over basic. Basic research declined from 22.9% in 1970 to 13.2% in 1996. In addition, the Korean state founded companies, the chaebois, had reached the technological frontier from reverse engineering and efforts were poured into R & D to gain international competitiveness. This was a key strategic move for Korean firms since they had small domestic economy compared to Brazil’s (and most industrialized countries that they were competing against) and therefore had to compete in foreign markets.

Russia According to a recent article Russia Plans to Promote Technology Innovations (Kramer) According to this article Russia has floated a new approach to catching up with the West in technology, a problem that has bedeviled the economy here for decades in spite of the country’s rich tradition in science. (Kramer) The initiative is the latest in a long line of policies trying to free Russia from the boom-and-bust cycles of commodity prices by making better use of the talents of its citizens.

The government will order ministries and state companies to use more of their procurement budgets to buy products that qualify as “innovative” and that are made in Russia.

Translating Russia’s bounty of scientific talent into popular, or even functional, products is a problem that has vexed the country since Soviet times. In a recent survey by Thomson Reuters, Russia lagged far behind China, Brazil and India in registered patents, even though the country’s officials project a self-image of scientific accomplishment. It is now recognized as an acute economic vulnerability because about 80 percent of exports are natural resources like oil and metals, making Russia susceptible to their price swings.

Russia’s Innovation gap

Before the 1990s, Russia was widely regarded as a science and technology powerhouse, able to hold its own in fields such as theoretical physics and nuclear technology and a world leader in space technologies. The collapse of the Soviet technology, particularly the industrial/military complex, to which most Russian R & D investment was directed, brought down a system that was based largely on technological prestige and bureaucratic planning.

The only type of R & D funding that has grown substantially in the past decades in foreign funding, which more than doubled to 10.3% of the total in 1999 (up from 4.6% in 1995), thanks to grants and foreign investment. But the danger of such foreign funding is that it is volatile and subject to changing business perceptions, as well as competition from other countries.

In fact, despite the magnitude of its assets and its world-class achievements in several scientific disciplines, the output of the Russian science and technology sector is rather modest. Russia ranks seventh in the world for the number of scientific publications its produces, around 3.5% of the total. And the volume of its resident patent applications has continually decreased over the 1990s (one per 10,000 population in 1997 compared with 4.5 in the United States, 2.5 in the EU and 3.8 in Nordic countries).

China Unlocking Innovation in China Can China become a nation of innovators? Its government hopes so. It has a plan to make China an innovative society by 2020.

Increased innovation, it argues, will be vital for China to move up the technological ladder to produce high-value goods and services. Indeed, homegrown innovation could be vital to solve many of China’s challenges, such as energy productivity and pollution, and to position Chinese companies competitively in the global market. (Economist)

Conference papers © Knowledge Globalization Institute, Pune, India, 2012

The pursuit of these goals is transforming China. No longer just the workshop of the world, the country is also becoming a laboratory, research and development (R & D) centre and consumer market. It stands out as leading R & D base for work in areas such as stem cell research and nanotechnology. China now publishes more academic papers on nanotechnology than any other country.

The government is spurring this trend. Over the last decade, China has increased its spending on R & D by 20% per year. Its target for overall spending on R & D (public and private) is 2.5% of GDP by 2020, up from 1.5% in 2007. This compares with 3.8% in Sweden in 2006, 3.4% in Japan in 2006 and 2.7% in the US in 2007. The government also foresees reducing China’s reliance on foreign technology to 30%, down from the current level of around 50%.

No patent law existed in China until 1985, and the country has deserved reputation for trampling on intellectual-property rights. But that could be changing. Anxious to promote domestic innovation, the Chinese government has created an ecosystem of incentives for its people to file patents. (Economist) Such incentives produce results. In 2008 Huawei filed more international patents than any other firm in the world. China’s overall patent filings grew by 26% a year between 2003 and 2009, says a new report from Thomson Reuters, an information service. Growth was much slower elsewhere: 6% in America, 5% in South Korea, 4% in Europe and 1% in Japan.

. A recent report (In Innovation Race, China is not yet a rival) by Thomson Reuters tries to draw a more accurate link between corporate patent filings and real innovation. It does so by measuring not only the number of patents a company files, but also the influence, global reach and success of its patents. (Lohr) The result is a list of the 100 most innovative companies in the world, not ranked, just in our out. Most of the names on the list are no surprise. Forty percent are from America, including IBM, Apple, Microsoft, Boeing, Exxon Mobile and Intel.

One surprise: not a single Chinese company is on the list. Yet China has become the most prolific patent filer in the world, pursuing a national plan to become an economy based on innovation rather than imitation.

But patent numbers-like standardized test scores- aren’t everything. To rank high on the Thomson Reuters innovation-weighted scale, patents must meet other criteria: success (ratio of patents filed to those granted in the last three years), global (filed in the four main patent offices, United States, Europe, Japan and China) and influence (how often patents are cited by others).

The 100 innovative companies selected by Thomson Reuters did well in 2010. They added 400,000 jobs, while sales on average rose 13 percent. It does appear to be more than coincidence, even though there is a lot more to corporate success than filing high-quality patents. (Lohr)

Rural India and National Innovation Foundation



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 37 | 38 || 40 | 41 |   ...   | 77 |


Similar works:

«On the Intergenerational Transmission of Economic Status Sang Yoon (Tim) Lee Ananth Seshadri Department of Economics Department of Economics University of Wisconsin-Madison∗ University of Mannheim January 2015 Abstract We present a model of human capital investment within and across generations, with incomplete markets and government transfer programs. Our model combines a fairly standard life-cycle model of human capital with an intergenerational model à la Becker and Tomes (1986). The...»

«Issues Paper THE SQUEEZED MIDDLE CLASS IN OECD AND EMERGING COUNTRIES: MYTH AND REALITY The squeezed middle class in OECD and emerging countries –myth and reality OECD Headquarters, Paris, 1 December, 2016 Issues Paper Session 1: Who is the Middle Class – and is it declining? Key facts  Almost two-thirds of people live in middle-income households in OECD countries. In Emerging Economies, the equivalent figure is between one-third and one-half.  The size of middle-income groups has...»

«Integrated Operational and Financial Approaches in Supply Chain Risk Management Dia Bandaly A Thesis in the John Molson School of Business in the Department of Decision Sciences and MIS Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements For the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy at Concordia University Montreal, Quebec, Canada September 2012 © Dia Bandaly, 2012 CONCORDIA UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES This is to certify that the thesis prepared By: Dia Bandaly Entitled: Integrated...»

«NATIONAL PRESS CLUB LUNCHEON WITH CHRISTINE LAGARDE SUBJECT: THE WORLD’S ECONOMY MODERATOR: ANGELA GREILING KEANE, PRESIDENT OF THE NATIONAL PRESS CLUB LOCATION: NATIONAL PRESS CLUB BALLROOM, WASHINGTON, D.C. TIME: 1:30 P.M. EDT DATE: WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 15, 2014 (C) COPYRIGHT 2008, NATIONAL PRESS CLUB, 529 14TH STREET, WASHINGTON, DC 20045, USA. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. ANY REPRODUCTION, REDISTRIBUTION OR RETRANSMISSION IS EXPRESSLY PROHIBITED. UNAUTHORIZED REPRODUCTION, REDISTRIBUTION OR...»

«Work and Occupations http://wox.sagepub.com The Overtime Culture in a Global Corporation: A Cross-national Study of Finance Professionals' Interest in Working Part-time AMY S. WHARTON and MARY BLAIR-LOY Work and Occupations 2002; 29; 32 DOI: 10.1177/0730888402029001003 The online version of this article can be found at: http://wox.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/29/1/32 Published by: http://www.sagepublications.com Additional services and information for Work and Occupations can be found at:...»

«REVIEW OF BUSINESS & FINANCE CASE STUDIES ♦ Volume 3 ♦ Number 1 ♦ 2012 AUDITING DUE DILIGENCE IN LAW AND ETHICS: THE PONZI “FEEDER FUND” CASES Albert D. Spalding, Jr., Wayne State University ABSTRACT Financial accounting is an information conveyance process. When financial auditors issue an opinion in regard to financial statements, the auditors are providing assurance that those financial statements fairly represent the entity, and are prepared in accordance with the relevant...»

«Dynamic Payments: The Future of B2B Transactions Business is dynamic. B2B transactions must keep pace. Executive Summary The “connected era” has introduced jaw-dropping innovations in communication, mobility, networking, and collaboration. Look closely and you’ll notice that these advancements are driven by a single human desire: an unquenchable need for speed. Business, like life, is fluid and dynamic, and people want to be able to get things done at the speed of thought—to notify,...»

«Housing Finance in Bangladesh Improving Access to Housing Finance by Middle and Lower Income Groups by Marja C. Hoek-Smit Prepared for The Government of Bangladesh Ministry of Local Government, Rural Development and Co-operatives) and UNDP/UNCHS (Habitat) December 1998 The author wishes to thank Dr. Shahnaz Huq-Hussein of the University of Dhaka for her unstinting support in the process of conducting the fieldwork for this review. The views contained in the report are those of the author and...»

«Exploring Racial Differences in Vehicle Loan Rates Kerwin Kofi Charles University of Michigan and NBER Erik Hurst University of Chicago and NBER Melvin Stephens, Jr. Carnegie Mellon University and NBER April 2006 We would like to thank Mark Aguiar, Steve Davis, Austan Goolsbee, Gita Gopinath, and Arthur Kennickell for helpful comments. Hurst would like to acknowledge financial support from the University of Chicago’s Graduate School of Business. Explaining Racial Differences in Vehicle Loan...»

«Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development www.iiste.org ISSN 2222-1700 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2855 (Online) Vol.5, No.23, 2014 Financial Development, Trade Openness and Economic Growth: Evidence from Sultanate of Oman (1972-2012) (Prof.) Dr. Hatem Hatef Abdulkadhim Altaee 1 Dr. Sabah Mahmood Saied2 Dr. Ezat Sabir Esmaeel2 3* Mustafa Hassan Mohammad Adam, Ph.D 1. Department of Accounting, Cihan University Sulaimaniyah–Kurdistan Region, Iraq 2.Department of Economics, University of...»

«Farm Household Economic Behaviour in Imperfect Financial Markets Empirical Evidence and Policy Implications on Saving, Credit and Production Efficiency in Southeastern Ethiopia Hussien Hamda Komicha Faculty of Natural Resources and Agricultural Sciences Department of Economics Uppsala Doctoral Thesis Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Uppsala 2007 Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae 2007: 78 ISSN 1652-6880 ISBN 978-91-576-7377-0 © 2007 Hussien Hamda Komicha, Uppsala Tryck: SLU...»

«Dr. Konrad E. Gunderson Missouri Western State University Accounting (816) 271-4278 Email: gunder@missouriwestern.edu Education Ph D, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 1992. Major: accounting Supporting Areas of Emphasis: economics, finance Dissertation Title: dispersion of financial analysts' earnings forecasts as a risk measure: theory and evidence MS, University of Wisconsin, 1986. Major: Finance BA, Luther College, 1982. Major: Accounting Supporting Areas of Emphasis: Economics Professional...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2017 www.abstract.dislib.info - Abstracts, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.