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«Published Annually Vol. 6, No. 1 ISBN 978-0-979-7593-3-8 CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS Sawyer School of Business, Suffolk University, Boston, Massachusetts ...»

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Agarwala, Malhan and Singh (1979) believe that the confusion is defined is primarily due to the fact that the same term is used by various scholars of different disciplines. Thus in physics, stress is a force which acts on a body to produce strain. In psychology, stress refers to a state of the organism resulting from some inter-stimulus which imposes detectable strain that cannot be easily accommodated by the body and so presents itself as impaired health or behaviour’. Hens Selye’s 1936 he wrote the first paper on the stress syndrome in 1936. He demonstrated the stress is not a vague concept, some how related to the decline in the influence of traditional codes of behaviour, dissatisfaction with the world, or the rising cost of living, but rather then it is clearly a deinable biological and medical phenomenon whose mechanisms can be objectively identified and with which he can cope much better once we know how to handle it. When confusions and arguments about stress-indeed about any concept- start to prove a barriers to communication and progress, it is always best to revert to the undisputed facts, the original observations that gave rise to the field.

Pestonjee(1987) however had noted that it is ‘natural and healthy to maintain optimal level of stress and opined that ‘success achievement, higher productivity and effectiveness call for stress’ When stresses are left unchecked and unmanaged, they can create problems in performance and affect the health and well being of the organism (Storch and Panzarella,1996), and managing ( Broad bridge 2002). Relatively few studies has been conducted and of these only Gallstedt focus on IT project managers. This reports on research aimed at validating and extending Gallstedt's work by identifying the sources of stress and their outcome that are relevant to IT managers.What are the stressors faced by IT managers, what are the consequences of them.

Work Related Stress-Causes and Consequences: Some of the researchers reviewed on work related stress further segregated stress into two type good and bad (Minirth et al, 1986). The “good” stress is also referred to as “eustress”. This positive kind of Conference papers © Knowledge Globalization Institute, Pune, India, 2012 stress is usually experienced at times of happiness fulfilment or satisfaction. The “bad” stress or “distress” is usually the result of excessive levels of continuing, negative stress.

Cooper (2001) reiterates the statement that some amount of stress is necessary for everyday living and, in lesser amounts, for learning and growth. To be an effective employee or employer, the ability to better handle and manage these necessary life stressors must be learned and practiced. Stressors are differentiated from stress by its definition as a cause of stress.

RESEARCH GAP:

Anisman and Merali (1999) says stressors can be separated into two classifications psychogenic and or physical tension (Lazarus and Folkman ) talked about stressors as an event that causes stress to the individual when he or she appraises the demands as exceeding the resources. Hsien-Chee (2002) explores the relationship among leadership styles and subordinate personality characteristic and job stress and turnover intentions. (Steve M Jex 2000) studied whether coping style influence the impact of self efficiency or stressors- strain relationships, this study was conducted on US army. Natasja(2004) addresses theoretical issues involving different interactions effect between job demands and job resources through demand control model.

Huarng (2001) had revealed that IT professionals have higher level of emotional exhaustion, which is the feeling of frustration and tension, than police and nurses, Similarly for depersonalization, which is tendency to treat client as objects rather than people, Huarg (2001) found that IT professional have higher burnout tendencies than teacher and welfare works, but lower than police and nurses. The increasing incidence of absenteeism and high turnover rates are indications that IT professionals are experiencing high level of job related stress.

Many businesses are unaware of the stress being experienced by their IT personnel (Thong and Yap, 2000). A factor that has contributed to this unawareness is the limited theoretical or empirical research that has examined the concept of stress amongst IT professionals.

The current literature on job stress either like to link causes of stress to personality variables, job related stress to change in the organization, performance linked or turnover intentions or a comparatively study between countries.

Most of the literature either shows the reasons or burnout or stress, or there is a comparative study between countries but not many studies are conducted in Indian IT sector. In Indian context there is some work done in manufacturing sector and BPO /KPO sector. The present study discusses different occupational stressors in Informational technology sector for junior and middle management categories executives. The study was conducted for executives located in two cities i.e Mumbai and Bangalore This study basically studies the antecedents and consequences of stress in these major cities and give recommendations how to overcome these problems.

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In view of the above, the objective of this study were:





 To identify the job related stressors for managers in Information Technology sector.

 To study the sources of stress with context to role related, Job Related, Interpersonal, Intra personal and Organizational.

 To investigate the relationship and impact of work related stress on managers by testing for relationship between causes with reference to demographic independent variables(age, gender, level of managers, years of experience, income and variables of stressors.

 To study the consequences of these stressors i.e physical, behavioural and psychological on the managers with reference to demographic independent variables.

 Give recommendations as to factors which are responsible for stress and how to overcome these problems

Research Methodology:

A conceptual framework of stress was adapted from previous research. Firstly an exploratory was conducted to find the stressors faced by IT managers. Based on the variables of stressors the instrument Occupational Stress Index by Dr A.K Singh and Dr R Srivastava was used to conduct the data

Conference papers © Knowledge Globalization Institute, Pune, India, 2012

This research study was designed to investigate the relationship and impact of work related stress on managers by testing for relationship between the causes of stress in its sector with reference to demographic, independent variables (age gender level, years of experience, income) and consequences of these stressors like physiological, behavioral and psychological. The instrument used for studying the causes of stress was Occupational stress index by Dr. Ajay Srivastava and Dr R Singh and for studying the consequences of stress instrument by International Stress Organization was used data was collected in two major cities Mumbai and Bangalore.The samples size was 500 Senior managers and Junior level managers from Information Technology sector

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Sampling is a process of selecting a (few sample) from a bigger group (the sampling population) to become the basis of estimating or predicting the prevalence of an unknown piece of information, situation or outcome regarding the bigger group.

Population: This is not the entire population of a given geographical area, but the predefined set of potential respondents (elements) in a geographical area. In the present research the entire population is IT managers all over India. But the potential respondents (element) are basically selected from the two major cities i.e Mumbai and Bangalore.

Sampling Frame:

In the present research the sample population was the IT managers from large scale IT companies. The area selected was Mumbai and Bangalore. The sample respondent was the Senior Level Managers like Leader, Program Managers, Project Managers, Product Managers, HR Managers, Senior Business Development Managers etc and the Junior level managers like Assistant programmers, Business Developers, Software programmers, Associate consultant, Developers, Executives etc.

Measurement of Stress:

Another well known psychometric instrument is the Occupational Stress Index which was constructed and standardized by Dr Srivastava and Dr Singh (1981).The author framed 46 statements covering all the relevant components of job life which might cause stress in one way or another. Of these 32 are true keyed and 18 are false keyed. While constructing the scale items, care was taken to ensure that responses to the various items clearly indicated the extent to which the respondent was bothered by different potentially stressful situations at work. A 5 point Likert type scale ranging from ‘strongly disagree’ to ‘strongly agree’ was used on each other. Total variables include Role overload, Role conflict, Role ambiguity, Job stressors, Intra personal stressors, powerlessness, under participation and low status. Also for studying the consequences of stressors a instrument used by International Stress Organization was used. Total number of questions in the consequences is 20 questions. The consequences are measured in terms of physical consequence, psychological consequence and behavioural consequence on a Likert 5 scale. As the moderating variables used were gender, age, income, years of experience in the same company and overall years of experience also location was considered.

The questionnaire survey was mailed to 600 managers randomly selected firms from a wide range of industry sector through the Bangalore city and Mumbai city.

–  –  –

Data was analysed on basis of using S.P.S.S. Different Statistical tools have been used to analyse the data like,t test, chisquare test, ANOVA, Regression Analysis.

–  –  –

There is a significant difference between stress level in male and female. Stress is more in male due to inter personal stressors, job stressors where is female it due to under participation and powerlessness. Stress also various with location. Stress is more in Mumbai due to few occupational stressors like role ambiguity, job related stressors, powerlessness, under participation and low status. If we compare stress level in Junior level managers is due to role conflict, powerlessness, under participation, low status.

Conference papers © Knowledge Globalization Institute, Pune, India, 2012 From the findings of the hypothesis framed. It was found that there is significant relationship between stress and location, stress and gender, stress and years of experience, stress and income.

Stress is inevitable result of work and personal life. Distress is not an inevitable consequence of stressful events how ever in fact well managed stress can improve health and performance. Some strategies recommended are first and the foremost starting from job designing, goal setting, role negotiation, social support system, individual prevention, learned optimism, time management, leisure time activites, physical exercises, relaxation training etc which can help the employees to control stress.

To conclude stress is the unconscious preparation to fight or flee when faced with any demand. Most of the stressors found in organization is task, role, interpersonal, physical demand at work along with non work demands. To overcome stress efforts from both perspectives is important i.e individual as well as organizational perspective. If efforts are taken from both sides may lead to a very healthy culture in an organization which will effect individual performance as well as organizational performance.

The conclusion reached supported the research question findings::

managers is due to role conflict, powerlessness, under participation, low status.

–  –  –

To conclude stress is the unconscious preparation to fight or flee when faced with any demand. Most of the stressors found in organization is task, role, interpersonal, physical demand at work along with non work demands. To overcome stress efforts from both perspectives is important i.e individual as well as organizational perspective. If efforts are taken from both sides may lead to a very healthy culture in an organization which will effect individual performance as well as organizational performance.

In a world where environment protection and water conservation are growing needs, the adaption of Laser land levelers taken on an fast pace in Indian agriculture. This paper will provide an overview of the current practices and suitable operating mode to meet the future demand on Land Leveling. A brief introduction of Laser Leveler working, Construction of Laser Transmitter, Receiver, solenoid valve and hydraulic plumbing is also provided. We are also proposing a stake holder analysis to add value all the partners in this model.

INTRODUCTION

At present in India there are many methods available for leveling the fields namely Draft animals, 2 wheeled tractors using harrows & leveling boards and 4 wheeled tractors using rear mounted tractor blades or drag buckets. All these traditional methods of leveling land are cumbersome, time consuming, and expensive, so more and more farmers are turning to modern methods to level the land. Timely field preparation has great impact on crop production. There are some advanced methods for land leveling like Laser Land leveling and GPS land leveling. Because of Indian agronomy Laser land levelers are getting popularity rapidly. Laser leveling is a process of smoothing the land surface (± 2 cm) from its average elevation using laser‐ equipped drag buckets. This practice uses large horsepower tractors and soil movers that are equipped with global positioning systems (GPS) and/or laser‐guided instrumentation so that the soil can be moved either by cutting or filling to create the desired slope/level. This technique is well known for achieving higher levels of accuracy in land leveling and offers great potential for water savings and higher grain yields.

HOW LASER LAND LEVELER WORKS



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