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«Published Annually Vol. 6, No. 1 ISBN 978-0-979-7593-3-8 CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS Sawyer School of Business, Suffolk University, Boston, Massachusetts ...»

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Manage. Data Syst., 105: 261-279. DOI: 10.1108/02635570510590101 Zack, M.H. (2002). Developing a knowledge strategy: Epilogue. Retrieved July 26, 2005, http://web.cba.neu.edu/~mzack/articles/kstrat2/kstrat2.htm Zanjani, S., Mehdi., S.M. & Mandana, M. (2008), “Organizational Dimensions as Determinant Factors of KM Approaches in SMEs”’ Proceedings of World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology Volume 35 ISSN 2070-3740 Zyngier, S.A., Burstein, F. and McKay, J. (2004) "Knowledge Management Governance: A Multifaceted Approach to Organisational Decision and Innovation Support", Decision Support in an Uncertain and Complex World: The IFIP TC8/WG8.3 International Conference Introduction Management is inevitable in each walk of life, whether it is an individual or an organization. Without management there is no guarantee of success. Various resources of life are getting eroded due inefficient use and management is the solution to make all resources productive. Present global competition has been creating opportunities and challenges for individual and organizations to prove their ability to sustain and succeed in the present era. Those who make strategic use of resources will survive & develop and those who do not will perish. Each activity whether it is economic, social, educational or political, needs good managers to manage strategically hence there is huge demand of good managers all over the globe. Management education has capacity to fulfill this increasing demand of good managers and hence the management institutes need to frame various strategies to make it possible to develop managers for strategic use of resources for the welfare of society as a whole.

Present Scenario of Management Education

Management education in India has become the second largest in professional education during post liberalization era.

Presently around 4000 institutes all over the country are involved in imparting management education to more than 4 million students. Though both, public and private sectors are working together, private sector has a dominating role in management education having more than 90 percent of the total number of institutes. In spite of having huge demand for skilled manpower by the job market very few institutes are able to fulfill this demand of job market. A large number of institutions are presently experiencing a problem of their survival and sustainability. Their sustainability and growth has become difficult due to the lack of minimum number of candidates opting for the course in those institutes. At one end the country has certain number of institutes which are very critical in admitting the candidates and at the other end a large number of institutes who could fill in only 40 to 50 percent of their intake capacity. Though these institutes are investing the resources as much as the institutes having full admissions, the income generated by first category institutes is less than 50 percent of their expected income. Hence they have become loss making ventures and eventually the situation is affecting adversely on the quality of management education and employability of management students. The time has come to think together deliberately and find strategies to survive and create employable human resource.

Types of Institutes The institutes which are involved in management education in India are presently categorized under following four categories.

The categorization is made on the basis of legal status of the institutes in their functioning.

Autonomous Institutes: The institutes which are funded by the Ministry of Human Resource Development, New Delhi belong to this category. These institutes are popularly known as Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs). Central government took initiative during 1960s to establish such institutes to develop human resource to mange industrial and economic growth of independent India that time. Presently there are just 13 IIMs located all over the country and are recognized as prime institutes in management education in the globe. These institutes have autonomy in respect of admissions, curriculum, administration, pedagogy etc.

Private unapproved institutes: there certain number of institutes which are run with private funding and are unrecognized by the All India Council of Technical Education (AICTE), regulatory body of HRD ministry. This category institutes have full autonomy in respect of course fee, admissions, recruitment of faculty, curriculum, course duration, pedagogy and so on. They are very flexible in their working and have close association with the corporate sector. Few of these institutes are sponsored by the industrial people. Degrees issued by some of the private institutes are not considered for recruiting in government jobs.

Conference papers © Knowledge Globalization Institute, Pune, India, 2012

AICTE approved institutes: All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) is an autonomous body of the HRD ministry of central government established to regulate technical education in the country. AICTE regulates management institutes with the help of ministry of technical education of the respective state governments. The institutes which are approved AICTE need to work under three regulatory bodies, AICTE, Director of Technical Education (DTE) of state government and affiliating university.

Approval of new institutes and continuation of approvals are issued by the AICTE and basic eligibility of faculty appointment is fixed by it. DTE of respective state government regulates admission process, eligibility, entrance exam, intake of seats, fee structure and the affiliating university regulates working hours, curriculum, pedagogy, approval of teaching faculty. Huge number of institutes come in this category, there were 3858 institutes approved by AICTE with 378907 intake capacity during the academic year 2010-11. More than 90 percent of the management education was implemented by the AICTE approved institutes.





Deemed Universities: The institutes which are granted a status of ‘Deemed-to-be University’ by the HRD ministry of central government and recognized by the University Grants Commission under section 3 of UGC Act 1956 are known as deemed universities. There were130 such universities functioning during the year 2010-11. These deemed universities are independent in all respect, admissions, curriculum, administration and so on, however they are regulated by the UGC of HRD ministry of central government.

Growth in Management Education (National level)

Management education in India is second fastest growing after engineering education in the last one decade. The number of institutes mushrooming all over the country so that even small towns have management institutes. Growth of institutes has been very fast in AICTE approved category of institutes due to liberal policy of the government on self financing institutes in higher education.

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Source: AICTE approval process hand book 2011-12 The table 1.1 shows quantitative growth in management institutes approved by AICTE during the years 2000 to 2010. Total number of institutes till the year 2000 was just 741 and increased to 1888 in first five years of the decade 2001 to 2010 with net increase of 1147 institutes. The percentage increase during those five years was 255. The growth rate during the years 2006 to 2010 was more than double of the growth rate of earlier 5 years. The overall growth rate of the decade was 421 percent.

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Source: AICTE approval process hand book 2011-12 Table 1.2 gives growth number of seats in AICTE approved institutes during 10 years from 2001 to 2010. There were 45312 seats available in all institutes in the year 2000-01 and increase to 122663 with a net increase by 77351 seats over a period of five years from 2000-01 to 2005-06, percentage increase was 271. Intake increased to 378907 from 122663 during the years 2005-06 to 2010-11 with net increase of 256244 during five years. This increase in intake was more than double of increase in earlier five years.

Conference papers © Knowledge Globalization Institute, Pune, India, 2012

Both the above tables show the institutes and intake have multiplied very fast during the years 2005-06 to 2010-11 and this increase has created a challenge of survival of many institutes. Analysis of DTE website of Maharashtra State revealed that 232 institutes out of total 407 were unable get even 50 percent of their intake seats during the year 2011-12. The state of Maharashtra is second largest state in India in respect of management education. Around 11 percent of the total institutes approved by AICTE are located in Maharashtra state with total intake of 42105. This state is considered one of the industrially developed in the country but the institutes of management education are underutilizing their resources due to lack of students.

Around 10000 seats of MBA are vacant during the academic year 2011-12. And around 25 percent of the institutes are unable to meet their over head expenses through fee collection from the students during the years 2010-11 & 2011-12.

Prevailing Conditions A large number of management institutes are presently passing through a phase which is very critical for their survival and sustainability. Following are the prevailing conditions in which the institutes are presently working with.

Increased average cost: Institutes have created infrastructure and other facilities as per AICTE norms for sanction intake but around 50 percent intake is vacant. Thus 50 percent of the resources remained unused which resulted in doubling the average cost per student.

Reduced income: Running an institute of management education has become a loss making venture during last couple of years. Institutes particularly which are having single course, which are less than 3 years old and which are located either in small towns and suburban areas are worst suffers in respect of income. These institutes are unable to recover variable expenses through income from fees of the course.

Cut –throat competition: The competing institutes many a times follow certain unethical practices which lead to undesirable competition. The practices may be regarding attendance, internal assessment of student, placement, concession in course fees etc.

Undue demands from candidates: The candidates seeking admission for management course knew the mismatch, intake seats are more and candidates are less. They put certain conditions in their favor while taking admission and the institutes had to accept many of the conditions for getting minimum students.

Admission to average/below average candidates: The institutes approved by AICTE and DTE are to follow centralized admission process (CAP) while giving admissions. They do not have option of rejecting any candidate on the basis of low merit during admission process.

Increased gap in urban and other institutes: Disparity in urban institutes and semi urban institutes already existed in respect of facilities, educational inputs, teaching methodology, educational environment etc. This disparity is widening due to certain reasons like candidates want to study from urban area institutes and other area institutes are to work with whatever the type of students available.

Attrition rate of faculty: Faculty in management institutes has become too mobile and changing the institutes very frequently.

The reasons are varied like pay package, job security, number of students, academic environment etc. Many institutes can’t afford to appoint qualified teachers and for some qualified faculty is unavailable.

Employability: Employability of candidates after completion of management education has become a question mark. Majority of the candidates are rejected by the recruiting persons stamping them as no skills. There is wide gap in the level of skill corporate sector expects from management candidates and the level of skill exists in them.

Strategies

Management institutes need to frame and implement different strategies for their sustainability. No specific strategy would be advisable to any institution however strategy formation and selection of strategy will vary from institute to institute. Some strategies are suggested as under.

Skill development: The basic objective of management education is develop human resource with certain skills and that is missing in many institutes because their candidates are not selected by the job market. Hence the institute should certain amount of time on activities to develop certain skills as per the requirement of recruiters.

Joint programs: certain programs in association with prime institutes like IIMs and with foreign universities will help in adding values for students and help creating brand name for the institutes.

Industry sponsorship: Management institutes need develop relationship with industries for developing employable human resources. Industry also should sponsor one or two institutes by deputing visiting faculty, by offering summer internship, by organizing certain training program, offering research projects. This sponsorship helps the students to learn practical experiences.

Conference papers © Knowledge Globalization Institute, Pune, India, 2012

Common entrance test: admission to management education is given on the base certain entrance test conducted by various organizations. Presently there are around 16 types of entrance tests conducted at national and state level. One common test should be conducted for getting admission in any type of institute in the country.

Restriction on number of institutes: Though higher education is put under GATS and it is privatized there should be certain restrictions on the number of institutes based on certain criteria. Regulatory bodies like AICTE, DTE and affiliating universities should fix the number of institutes in certain area to avoid saturation of institutes and to avoid cut-throat competition among them.

Multiple courses: The institutes should think of introducing certain additional courses so that optimum utilization resources would be possible. Regulatory bodies also should consider such proposals.

Clubbing or specialization of courses: Each institute should concentrate on one or two specializations in which it has core competency.

Quality assessment: Quality assessment of various aspect of the institute will help them take certain steps towards quality enhancement activities.



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