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In this issue we present an interview with István Márta, managing director of the Zsolnay Heritage Management Nonprofit Ltd. and chairman of the Hungarian Festival Association.

It is really interesting to hear the opinion of a man of arts about challenges of non-profit management in Hungary. The story of his successful career serves to the reader for an extraordinary example on the value of a creative and unconventional managerial approach.

Finally in the paper of Petra Gyurácz-Németh on The role of process standardisation and

customisation in hotel management the following questions are answered:

– How can the level of standardisation and customisation be measured?


VOLUME 4 • ISSUE 1 (MARCH 2015) – Is there any relationship between standardisation and customisation or are they independent from each other so hotel managers have to choose?

– What kind of performance indicators are there in hotels? How their relations look like?

– Do standardisation and customisation help hotels increase their performance?

Well, fasten your seat belt, Dear Reader, and enjoy the ideas discussed by the authors in this issue.

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Bowen, Howard R. (1953). Social Responsibilities of the Businessman. New York: Harper & Row.

Carroll, Archie B. (1979). A three-dimensional Conceptual Model of Corporate Social Performance, Academy of Management Review, Vol. 4, No. 4, 497–505.

Dasgupta, Sabyasachi. (2013). ‘Responsibility in-focus’: deconstructing “Corporate Social Responsibility” concept. In Proceedings of ICOM 2013,19th-20th March 2013, Colombo, Sri Lanka Davis, Keith. (1960). Can business afford to ignore social responsibilities? California Management Review, No. 2, Spring, 70–76.

Granovetter, M. and R. Swedberg (eds.) (1992). The Sociology of Economic Life. Boulder – San Francisco – Oxford: Westview Press.

Hetesi, E. – Veres, Z. (2013): Make-believe or common interest? Central European dilemma. Идеи и Идеалы, Novosibirsk, Vol. 4, No. 18., 83–91., ISSN 2075-0862 Levitt, Theodor. (1958). The dangers of social responsibility. Harvard Business Review, Vol. 36, No. 5, 41–50.

McGuire, Joseph W. (1963). Business and Society. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Pataki, Gy. and Szántó, R. (2011). A társadalmi felelősségvállalás vállalati on-line kommunikációjának kritikai elemzése. (A Critical Analysis on Corporate On-Line Communicaton of Social Responsibility). Vezetéstudomány, Vol. 42, No. 12, 2–12.

Radácsi, László. (2011). A közép-európai CSR-paradoxon. (The Central European CSRParadox) Harvard Business Review, December, 28-39.

Schwartz, M.S. and Carroll, A.B. (2003). Corporate Social Responsibility: A Three Domain Approach. Business Ethics Quarterly, Vol. 13, Issue 4, 503–530.

Walton, Clarence C. (1967). Corporate Social Responsibilities. Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Co. Inc.




Zoltán Veres, Professor of Marketing, at the University of Pannonia, Veszprém, Hungary, Head of Department of Marketing. He was born in Hungary and he received his university degrees from the Technical University of Budapest (Masters degree in Electrical Engineering) and the Budapest University of Economic Sciences (Masters degree in International Business). He obtained his PhD in economics, at the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. More recently, he obtained his habilitation degree at University of Szeged, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration.

He worked as project manager of numerous international industrial projects in the Mediterranean region (e.g. Greece, Middle East, North Africa) between 1977 and ‘90. Since 1990, he actively participates in the higher education.

Among others he taught at the College for Foreign Trades;

at the Ecole Supérieure de Commerce d’Angers and between 2004 and 2009 he was Head of Institute of Business Studies at the University of Szeged. In 2011 he was appointed professor of Marketing at the Budapest Business School (BBS), Hungary, and between 2010 and 2014 he was also Head of Research Centre at BBS. Since 2014 he is Head of Department of Marketing at the Faculty of Business & Economics of the University of Pannonia, Veszprém, Hungary. From the beginning of the year 2014 he is the editor of the Pannon Management Review.

Zoltán Veres has had consultancy practice and conducted numerous research projects on services marketing and project marketing. In 2001 and 2002 he was Head of Service Research Department at the multinational GfK Market Research Agency. He is member of the research group European Network for Project Marketing and Systems Selling, Lyon; Advisory Board member of Academy of World Business, Marketing and Management Development, Perth (Australia); member of Comité Cientifico del Academia Europea de Dirección y Economía de la Empresa (Spain); Advisory Board member of the Nepalese Academy of Management; member of Board of Supervision at Association for Marketing Education and Research, Hungary; Advisory Board member of McMillan & Baneth Management Consulting Agency, Hungary and consultant of Consact Quality Management Ltd., Hungary.

He has more than 200 scientific publications, including the books of Introduction to Market Research, Foundations of Services Marketing and Nonbusiness Marketing. He has been editor of series to Academy Publishing House (Wolters Kluwer Group), Budapest. Besides


VOLUME 4 • ISSUE 1 (MARCH 2015) Zoltán Veres has been editorial board member of the journals Revista Internacional de Marketing Público y No Lucrativo (Spain), Вестник Красноярского государственного аграрного университета (Krasnoyarsk, Russian Federation), Tér-Gazdaság-Ember and Marketing & Menedzsment (Hungary); member of Journal of Global Strategic Management, Advisory Board and Review Committee; member of Asian Journal of Business Research, Editorial Review Board.




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Climate change has been capturing the headlines as the changes continue to be manifest and show worsening conditions affecting our planet. For tourism this has also become a major concern as the contributions made to climate change by the tourism industries has been highlighted. We have been part of a project in the Faculty of Business and Economics to consider how the challenges of climate change can be addressed. This present article has therefore been published in the frame of the project TÁMOP-4.2.2.A-11/1/KONV-2012-0064. The project is realized with the support of the European Union, with the co-funding of the European Social Fund. The Department of Tourism at the University of Pannonia has long been committed to the principles of sustainability and in this article we attempt to adopt the lessons which have been developed in the area of sustainability to the challenges of combatting climate change. We have observed that there has been a tendency for the climate change literature and the sustainability literature to create and operate within two distinct spheres. This article is an attempt, with our international partners from the United Kingdom and Slovenia, to identify good practices that have been developed within the sustainability sphere and bring them into play in the governance of communities concerned with combatting climate change.

Following a critical review of the literature, we consider three mechanisms that we believe have value in building better approaches to planning, community building, empowerment and sharing responsibility. These include a decision making tool, the use of the sustainability wheel and the integrated sustainability community planning approach. They demonstrate the need for communities to be empowered through greater involvement in decision making, based on greater knowledge and a sense of responsibility for future developments. Governance can no longer be based on conventional planning approaches alone, the expertise of the planner must be extended by and through the involvement of the communities. Therefore these three processes share a commitment to inclusivity and a holistic approach for exploring, examining and easing emergent issues surrounding climate change.



Sustainable decision making

Concepts related to sustainable development have influenced planning and management for over a century. As early as 1909, the Canadian Commission for Conservation was established to examine resource conservation and urban environmental issues (McCarthy et al.

2006). Key conceptual developments in the 1970s and 1980s include environmental management and assessment (UNEP 1972), limiting growth (Meadows et al. 1972), the emergence of the notion of “appropriate technology” (i.e. technology that is small-scale, decentralised, energy efficient, ecologically sensitive, and locally controlled; Schumacher 1973), and conservation of resources (IUCN 1980). However, it was not until publication of Our Common Future that sustainable development became a primary concern for policy-makers (WCED, 1987, p.8). Despite recent debates over the meaning of the term “sustainability”, a consensus has emerged that suggests that sustainability “must aim to foster and preserve socioecological systems... that are dynamic and adaptable, satisfying, resilient, and therefore durable” (Gibson, 2006a, p. 173).

Much of the sustainability planning undertaken in an international context is influenced by protocols developed by Agenda 21 of the Rio Declaration on Sustainable Development.

Of particular interest is Chapter 8, which deals with integrating environment and development within decision-making through the establishment of policies that reflect a long-term perspective and facilitate cross-sectoral approaches (UNEP, 1992, p. 65). The Declaration also argues that responsibility for these developments should fall to the lowest level of public authority, which is known as the principle of subsidiarity (UNEP, 1992, p. 66). The Declaration supports adaptive and integrated strategies that consider multiple goals while maintaining flexibility for adjusting to emerging issues that threaten sustainability.

The emergence of collaborative processes designed to harness multiple perspectives across sectors (Innes 1996, Healey 1998, Healey 2004) and the promotion of local action has benefitted from the “communicative turn” in municipal planning (Tewdwr-Jones – Allmendinger 1998). Indeed, many countries have adopted more inclusive approaches to sustainability that are conducive to achieving local objectives (Bagheri – Hjorth 2007, Partidário et al. 2009). We believe collaborative planning theory, with its focus on integration, multiple perspectives, and inclusivity, can support sustainability. By incorporating many of the concepts proposed within Agenda 21 and by promoting a collaborative planning approach, it is possible to look toward a deeper understanding of sustainable development.

A holistic sustainability assessment should include economic, environmental and social aspects on different impact levels ranging from the material or site-specific level to the system ÁGNES RAFFAY, MIHA LESJAK, PETER WILTSHIER, & ALAN CLARKE 15


level via the local semi-regional or the so-called narrow life-cycle level. An important question in such an analysis is how different aspects and different levels should be assessed and valued (Hansson 2010, Edvardsson Björnberg – Hansson 2011). Often at the local level great efforts are made on local-scale risk assessment while social and larger-scale environmental impacts are regarded as abstract, hard to estimate in relation to the impacts and therefore often omitted ( Johansson 2008, Glaas et al. 2010).

On the international and national political agenda, sustainability is usually assessed using tools developed including carbon foot print analyses (PAS 2050 2008), life-cycle assessment (LCA) (ISO 14040 2006) and integrated assessments such as the Regional Air Pollution Information and Simulations (RAINS) and the Greenhouse gas and Air pollution Interaction and Synergies models (GAINS) (IIASA 2012). There is a tendency to consider site-specific and local aspects in those methods. Applying these methods can be a time-consuming exercise and even for large investments the integration of environmental aspects in the decision making can be problematic ( Johansson 2008, Suer et al. 2009). Land-use changes, such as physical climate-change adaption measures may encompass large-scale, costly, long-lasting investments that may increase the risk of maladaptation and they require assessment of long term impacts and potential risks through their life time (Birkmann 2006, Schuster - Highland 2006, Barnett – O’Neill 2010). For example erosion-prevention measures may cause erosion elsewhere, and a measure to reduce climate-change-induced risks may contribute to increased emissions of greenhouse gases, thereby counteracting the cause, and disproportionately increase burdens for already vulnerable people or high economic, social and environmental costs (Barnett – O’Neill 2010).

The Decision Process Support Tool

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