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«DE-OILING AND PRE-TREATMENTS FOR HIGH-QUALITY POTATO CHIPS A Thesis by TAE HOON KIM Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M ...»

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DE-OILING AND PRE-TREATMENTS FOR HIGH-QUALITY POTATO CHIPS

A Thesis

by

TAE HOON KIM

Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of

Texas A&M University

in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of

MASTER OF SCIENCE

December 2010

Major Subject: Biological and Agricultural Engineering

D-oiling and Pre-treatments for High Quality Potato Chips

Copyright 2010 Tae Hoon Kim

DE-OILING AND PRE-TREATMENTS FOR HIGH-QUALITY POTATO CHIPS

A Thesis by TAE HOON KIM Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of

MASTER OF SCIENCE

Approved by:

Co-Chairs of Committee, Rosana Moreira Maria Elena Castell-Perez Committee Members, Maria Barrufet Head of Department, Stephen Searcy December 2010 Major Subject: Biological and Agricultural Engineering iii ABSTRACT De-oiling and Pre-treatments for High-Quality Potato Chips. (December 2010) Tae Hoon Kim, B.S., Texas A&M University Co-Chairs of Advisory Committee: Dr. Rosana Moreira Dr. Maria Elena Castell-Perez A de-oiling step using a centrifuge ensures oil content reduction and improves the quality of fried snacks. A commercial deep-fat fryer with the basket loaded with potatoes and a sample holder was used to fry potato slices, non-pretreated, blanched in hot water (85°C/3.5min) and rinsed in 3% NaCl solution (25°C/5min). A de-oiling step (350+1 rpm and 457+1 rpm) for 1 min was conducted after the frying (145°, 165° and 185°C or 165°C) and cooling (0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 s or 0.60 and 120 s) steps.

Lower frying temperature, higher centrifuge speed, and shorter cooling time resulted in the lowest oil uptake in potato chips. Pre-treatments (blanching and soaking) decreased (5% and by at least 10%), respectively, compared to the untreated chips.

De-oiling led to increased hardness of the chips fried at 145° and 165°C (0 s cooling time), and the hardness decreased as cooling time. Pre-treatments (blanching and soaking) increased hardness (by 46% and 38%) and decreased work (by 20% and 27%), respectively, so that, during rupture, the pre-treated chips resulted in more crunchiness and firmness than the untreated chips.

Potato chips showed less lightness and redness when fried at 145°C, and more

–  –  –

temperature increased. As cooling time increased, the lightness of the chips decreased, and the redness and the yellowness of the chips increased. Pre-treated samples resulted in increasing in lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*), whereas the redness (a*) values of the final products fluctuated.

Higher frying temperature, centrifuge speed, and higher cooling time usually resulted in increasing shrinkage in thickness of potato chips; the chips fried at 165°C resulted in increasing in thickness. All the fried and de-oiled products resulted in a decrease in thickness, diameter, and volume except for the thickness of the chip soaked in NaCl, compared to raw slices.

A consumer test showed that, blanching and de-oiling without cooling enhanced texture and overall quality of the chip, soaking and de-oiling improved the color, flavor, and the overall quality, and the two pre-treatments did not significantly influence the

–  –  –

I would like to thank Dr. Rosana Moreira, co-chair of my committee and academic advisor, for her guidance, encouragement, and help. My gratitude extends to Dr. Maria. Elena Castell-Perez, co-chair of my committee and advisor during my undergraduate studies, for always being willing to help. Thanks also to Dr. Maria Barrufet, member of my committee, for her time and invaluable advice. Thanks to Dr.

Rhonda K. Miller for welcoming me into her lab for sensory analysis. Thanks to Dr.

Creighton Miller and Mr. Douglas Scheuring for their precious time and advice about the ecology of potatoes.

To my sisters, Sanghee, Sunyoung, Sunkyung and Jisun, and brothers-in-law, Youngchul Chae, Gwannyeoung Kim, Byunggi Ahn and Myeounghoon Lim for their love, care, optimism, and never letting me fall--to always encourage me. Thanks Dr Jongsoon Kim and Paulo for sharing their knowledge with me, and for being not only my lab tutor, but my friend. Thanks to my friends at the Food Engineering Lab, Dr.

Gomes, Mauricio, Yolanda, Akhilesh, Ezekiel, Carla, Taehoon, Isin, Alex, for being my good friends like a family, and for all the laughs and great memories throughout these years. My sincere gratitude is to all those people that were around me and helped,

–  –  –

Abstract

DEDICATION

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF FIGURES

LIST OF TABLES

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

II LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Snack Food

2.1.1 Potato Chips

2.1.2 Healthy Snack Food

2.1.3 Reduced Oil Content Potato Chips

2.2 Potato Characteristics

2.3 Deep-fat Frying

2.4 Post-frying Cooling

2.5 De-oiling Process Using a Centrifuge

2.6 Physical and Quality Characteristics





2.6.1 Oil Content

2.6.2 Texture

2.6.3 Color

2.6.4 Degree of Shrinkage and Expansion

III MATERIALS AND METHODS

–  –  –

3.1.4 Analytical Methods

3.1.4.1 Moisture Content of Raw Potatoes

3.1.4.2 Moisture Content of Potato Chips

3.1.4.3 Oil Content

3.1.5 Product Characteristics in Frying

3.1.5.1 Shrinkage

3.1.5.2 Color

3.1.5.3 Texture

3.1.5.4 Sensory Analysis

3.2 Statistical Analysis

IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.1 Oil Absorption of Potato Chips

4.1.1 De-oiled Chips without Pre-treatment

4.1.1.1 Effect of Frying Temperature

4.1.1.2 Effect of Centrifuge Speed

4.1.1.3 Effect of Cooling Time

4.1.2 De-oiled Chip with Pre-treatments

4.1.2.1 No Pre-treatment

4.1.2.1.1 Effect of Centrifuge Speed

4.1.2.1.2 Effect of Cooling Time

4.1.2.2 Blanching in Hot Water at 85°C for 3.5 min

4.1.2.2.1 Effect of Centrifuge Speed

4.1.2.2.2 Effect of Cooling Time

4.1.2.3 Soaking in 3% NaCl Solution at 25°C for 5 min

4.1.2.3.1 Effect of Centrifuge Speed

4.1.2.3.2 Effect of Cooling Time

4.1.2.4 Comparison between Controls and Pre-treated Chips............. 51

4.2 Texture

4.2.1 De-oiled Chips without Pre-treatment

4.2.1.1 Effect of Temperature

4.2.1.2 Effect of Centrifuge Speed

4.2.1.3 Effect of Cooling Time

4.2.2 De-oiled Chips with Pre-treatments

4.2.2.1 No Pre-treatment

4.2.2.1.1 Effect of Centrifuge Speed

4.2.2.1.2 Effect of Cooling Time

4.2.2.2 Blanching in Hot Water at 85oC for 3.5 min

4.2.2.2.1 Effect of Centrifuge Speed

4.2.2.2.2 Effect of Cooling Time

4.2.2.3 Soaking in 3% NaCl Solution at 25oC for 5 min

ix CHAPTER Page 4.2.2.3.1 Effect of Centrifuge Speed

4.2.2.3.2 Effect of Cooling Time

4.2.2.4 Comparison between Controls and Pre-treated Chips............. 68

4.3 Color

4.3.1 De-oiled Chips without Pre-treatment

4.3.1.1 Effect of Temperature

4.3.1.2 Effect of Centrifuge Speed

4.3.1.3 Effect of Cooling Time

4.3.2 De-oiled Chips with Pre-treatments

4.3.2.1 No Pre-treatment

4.3.2.1.1. Effect of Centrifuge Speed

4.3.2.1.2 Effect of Cooling Time

4.3.2.2 Blanching in Hot Water at 85oC for 3.5 min

4.3.2.2.1 Effect of Centrifuge Speed

4.3.2.2.2 Effect of Cooling Time

4.2.2.3 Soaking in 3% NaCl Solution at 25oC for 5 min

4.2.2.3.1 Effect of Centrifuge Speed

4.3.2.3.2 Effect of Cooling Time

4.3.2.4 Comparison between Controls and Pre-Treated Chips........... 93

4.4 Shrinkage

4.4.1 De-oiled Chip without Pre-treatment

4.4.1.1 Effect of Temperature

4.4.1.2 Effect of Centrifuge Speed

4.4.1.3 Effect of Cooling Time

4.4.2 De-oiled Chip with Pre-treatments

4.4.2.1 No Pre-treatment

4.4.2.1.1 Effect of Centrifuge Speed

4.4.2.1.2 Effect of Cooling Time

4.4.2.2 Blanching in Hot Water at 85°C for 3.5 min

4.4.2.2.1 Effect of Centrifuge Speed

4.4.2.2.2 Effect of Cooling Time

4.4.2.3 Soaking in 3% NaCl Solution at 25°C for 5 min

4.4.2.3.1 Effect of Centrifuge Speed

4.4.2.3.2. Effect of Cooling Time

4.4.2.4 Comparison between Controls and Pre-treated Chip............ 114

4.5 Sensory

V CONCLUSIONS

VI RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY

–  –  –

3.2. (a) Raw potato used for frying; (b) slices holding net; (c) basket with potato slices; (d) basket being placed inside the fryer; (e) potato slices being de-oiled; (f) high speed centrifuge de-oiling the chips

4.1. Final oil content/moisture removed for potato chips (without pretreatment) fried at different temperatures, and de-oiled under various centrifuge speeds for (a) 0 s cooling time; (b) 60 s cooling time; and (c) 120 s cooling time

4.2. Final oil content/moisture removed as a function of the centrifuge speed for potato chips (without pre-treatment) de-oiled under various frying temperatures for (a) 0 s cooling time; (b) 60 s cooling time; and (c) 120 s cooling time

4.3. Final oil content/moisture removed as a function of the cooling time for potato chips (without pre-treatment) de-oiled under various centrifuge speeds and fried at (a) 145°C; (b) 165oC; and (c) 185oC

4.4. Final oil content/moisture removed as a function of cooling time for potato chips fried at 165oC, de-oiled under various centrifuge speeds, and with (a) no pre-treatment; (b) blanched in hot water at 85oC for 3.5 min; and (c) soaked in 3% NaCl solution at 25oC for 5 min

4.5. Final oil content/moisture removed as a function of centrifuge speed for potato chips no pre-treated, blanched in hot water at 85°C for 3.5 min, and soaked in 3% NaCl solution at 25°C for 5 min, fried at 165oC, and cooled for 0 s

4.6. Effect of frying temperature on the hardness and work of potato chips (without pre-treatment) cooled for 0 s and de-oiled under various centrifuge speeds

–  –  –

4.8. Comparison of potato chips fried at 165oC, 0 s cooling time, without de-oiling, and with the following pre-treatments (a) no pre-treatment (b) blanched in hot water at 85°C for 3.5min and (c) soaked in 3% NaCl solution for 5 min. No pre-treated potato chips, 0 s cooling time, without de-oiling and fried at the following temperatures (d) 145°C (e) 165°C (f) 185°C

4.9. Comparison of no pre-treated potato chips fried at 145°C and (a) 0 s cooling time/8.1 RCF, (b) 0 s cooling time/13.8 RCF, (c) 60 s cooling time/8.1 RCF, (d) 60 s cooling time/13.8 RCF, (e) 120 s cooling time/8.1 RCF and (f) 120 s cooling time/13.8 RCF

4.10. Comparison of no pre-treated potato chips fried at 165°C and (a) 0 s cooling time/8.1 RCF, (b) 0 s cooling time/13.8 RCF, (c) 60 s cooling time/8.1 RCF, (d) 60 s cooling time/13.8 RCF, (e) 120 s cooling time/8.1 RCF and (f) 120 s cooling time/13.8 RCF

4.11. Comparison of no pre-treated potato chips fried at 185°C and (a) 0 s cooling time/8.1 RCF, (b) 0 s cooling time/13.8 RCF, (c) 60 s cooling time/8.1 RCF, (d) 60 s cooling time/13.8 RCF, (e) 120 s cooling time/8.1 RCF and (f) 120 s cooling time/13.8 RCF

4.12. Effect of cooling time after de-oiling (8.1 RCF) for no pre-treated potato chips fried at 165oC (a) no de-oiling and 0 s cooling time, (b) 0 s, (c) 15 s, (d) 30 s, (e) 45 s, and (f) 60 s

4.13. Effect of cooling time after de-oiling (13.8 RCF) for no pre-treated potato chips fried at 165oC (a) no de-oiling and 0 s cooling time (b) 0 s, (c) 15 s, (d) 30 s, (e) 45 s and (f) 60 s

–  –  –

4.18. Effect of cooling time and centrifuge speed on the color changes of potato chips fried at 165oC without pre-treatment: (a) lightness, L*; (b) redness, a*; and (c) yellowness; b*

–  –  –

4.20. Effect of cooling time and centrifuge speed on the color changes of potato chips soaked in 3% NaCl solution at 25oC for 5 min before frying at 165oC: (a) lightness, L*; (b) redness, a*; and (c) yellowness;

b*

4.21. Shrinkage in thickness as a function of frying temperatures for potato chips (without pre-treatment) cooled for (a) 0 s; (b) 60 s; (c) 120 s and de-oiled at different centrifuge speeds

4.22. Shrinkage in volume as a function of frying temperatures for potato chips (without pre-treatment) cooled for (a) 0 s; (b) 60 s; (c) 120 s and de-oiled at different centrifuge speeds

4.23. Shrinkage in thickness as a function of centrifuge speed for potato chips fried at 165oC, de-oiled under various centrifuge speeds, and with (a) no pre-treatment; (b) blanched in hot water at 85oC for 3.5 min; and (c) soaked in 3% NaCl solution at 25oC for 5 min

–  –  –

3.1. Experimental design – temperature effects

3.2. Experimental design – pre-treatment effects

–  –  –

4.2. Effect of centrifuge speed and cooling time on the final oil content of potato chips fried at 165°C without pre-treatment

4.3. Effect of centrifuge speed and cooling time on the final oil content of potato chips fried at 165°C and pre-treated by blanching in hot water at 85°C for 3.5 min

4.4. Effect of centrifuge speed and cooling time on the final oil content of potato chips fried at 165°C and pretreated by soaking in 3% NaCl solution at 25°C for 5 min

4.5. Changes in texture (hardness (N) and work (N*mm)) of the potato chip fried at varying frying temperature, cooled at different times, and deoiled at different centrifuge speeds (without pre-treatment)

4.6. Change in texture (hardness (N) and work (N*mm)) of potato chip fried at 165oC and cooled at different times and de-oiled at different centrifuge speeds



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