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«S PAWNING INDUCTION AN) P)NI) CULTURE OF THE S P(TFI'ED SCAT (Scatophagus argus Liinaeuis) IN THE PHILIPPINES Arlo W. Fast, Editor Hawaii Institute ...»

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S PAWNING INDUCTION AN) P)NI) CULTURE OF THE S P(TFI'ED SCAT

(Scatophagus argus Liinaeuis) IN THE PHILIPPINES

Arlo W. Fast, Editor

Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology -v

.

A Research Contribution from:

IIAWAII INSTITUTE OF MARINE BIOLOGY

UNIVERSITY OF IIAWAII AT MANOA

KANEOIIE, IIAWAII

UI.S.A.

ILOILO STATE COLLEGE OF FISHERIES

BAROTAC NUEVO. ILOILO

PIIILIPPINES

Completion Report in Fulfillment of U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), Program in Science and Technology Cooperation (PSTC) Grant No. PDC-5542-G-SS-5033-02 Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology Contribut'on No. 744 Ilawaii Institute of Marine Biology Technical Report No. 39

Published by:

Mariculture Research and Training Center Ilawaii Institute of Marine Biology University of lawaii at Manoa

A 400G ADULT SPOTTED SCAT (SCATOPHAGUS ARGUS) WITH A JUVENILE

(PHOTO BY KENT E. CARPENTER)

POND RESEARCH FACILITIES AT ILOILO STATE COLLEGE OF FISHERIES (ISCOF)

CONTENTS

Preface Acknowledgements Project Personnel I. Introduction Terence P. Barry and Arlo IV.Fast I. Project O bjectives

2. Research Priorities

NATURAl HISTORY I!. Natural History of the Spotted Scat (Scatophagus argus) Terence P. Barr) and Arlo IV. Fast

1. Classification and Description of Spotted Scat

2. D istribution of Spotted Scat

3. Spotted Scat Field Collections and Fish Survivorship in Iloilo Studies

a. Scat Broodstock Field Collections b. Scat Fry Field Collections c. Field Capture Data of Broodstock Scat d. Broods!ock Survival e. Fry Survival

4. Food Preferences of the Spotted Scat

5. Growth and Length-Weight Relationships of Spotted Scat

a. Length-Weight Relationship b.Age and Growth Predictions 6. Size at First Reproduction of Spotted Scat Captured in Ilo ilo

7. Sexual Dimorphism and Sex Determination in Spotted Scat

8. Spawning Season of Spotted Scat in the Ilo ilo A rea

9. Fecundity of Spotted Scat Captured in Iloilo

10. Stages of Oocyte Developm ent

11. Pairing and Mating Behavior of Captive Spotted Scat

12. Spawned Eggs and Larvae

a. Spawned Eggs b. Early Larval Development c. Tholichthys Larvae

INDUCED GONADAL MATURATION AND SPAWNINGI

Ill. Gonadal Maturation and Spawning Induction in Female Spotted Scat (Scatophagus argus) Terence P. Barry, Milagros T. Cnsta1 zos, and M aria Pa: S. Macahilig

IV. Preliminary Observations on the Effects of Sex Steroids and Human Chorionic Gonadofropin (IICG) on the Final Maturation of Spotted Scat (Scatophagus argus) Oocytes In Vitro.

Afilagros T. Casta7tos and Terence P. Barr'

V. Gonadal Maturation and Spermiation in Male Spotted Scat (Scatophagus argas) Terence P. Barriy and M ilagros T. Casta os

VI. The Effect of Salinity oft Sperm Motility in the Spotted Scat (Scatophagus argus) 'rence P. Barr '. Maria Pa: S. Macahilig, and Ailagros T Castantos

–  –  –

VII. Production of Milkfish (Chanos chanos) and Spotted Scat (Scalophagus argus) in Polyculture Henry D. Biona, Sr.. Rizaline Tabanda, Rodney' Ba)'ogos, Arlo 1V. Fast and Terence ?. Barry

VIII. The Effect of Two Stocking Densities and Methyltestosterone Feeding on Growth of Spotted Scat (Scatophagus argus) in Earthen Ponds Henr' D. Biona, Sr., Rizaline Tabanda, Rodney Bajogos, Arlo IV. Fast, and Terence P. Barry

IX. Production of Tiger Prawn (Penaeus monodon) and Spotted Scat (Scatophagus argus) in Polyculture Henry D. Biona, Sr., Rizaline Tabanda, Rodney Ba),ogos, Arlo IV. Fast and Terence P. Barry

–  –  –

X. Dietary Use of 17a-Methyltestosterone, Estradiol-1713, and 3,5,3'-Triiodo-L-Thyronine as Potential Growth Promoters for the Spotted Scat (Scatophagus argus) Paul Felipe S. Cruz and Terence P. Barry

–  –  –

XI. Temperature, Salinity, and PH1 Tolerance of Spotted Scat Fry (Scatophagus argus) Maria Paz S. Alacahilig. Milagros T. Cat:z'ios and Terence P. B arr.

XII. 2-Phenoxyethanol as a Gereral Anesthetic for Spotted Scat (Scatophagus argut.,) Rizaline Tabanda a:d Terec e P. Barr.

DISEASES AND PARASITES

XIlI. Ilistopathoogical Report on a Microsporidian Infection in the Spotted Scat (Scatophagus argus) Jose Al. Natividad and Nelson D. Gerundo

XIV. Report on Diseases and Parasites in the Spotted Scat (Scatophagus argus) Gilda Lio-Po and Terence P. Barry

XV. Observations and Treatment of Dermal Hemorrhagic Disease in the Spotted Scat (Scatophagus argus) Paul Felipe S.

Cru:

–  –  –

The spotted scat is one of the highest priced food fishes in the Philippines. It is also a valued aquarium fish for the export and domestic market, with a far greater demand than supply. To date, there have been few attempts to culture the spotted scat through spawning induction, larviculture, and growout in tanks and ponds. Virtually all scat for the food market and aquaria trade are captured from the wild. None are grown to market size in ponds, except for incidental intrusions into milkfish or prawn ponds.





Dr. Jose Carreon, at that time the Dean of the College of Fisheries, University of the Philippines (UP), recognized the need to develop culture techniques for the spotted scat, and in 1984 proposed the present study to USAID in collaboration with the University of Hawaii, through USAID's PSTC grant program. The proposal was accepted, and research began during the spring of 1986 at the University of the Philippines in the Visayas (UPV) Brackishwater Aquaculture Center (BAC) at Leganes, Iloilo. As a result of facilities limitations at the BAC, the project was transferred to the Iloilo State College of Fisheries (ISCOF) in December 1986. Dr. Benigno P. Panistante and Mr. Henry Biona, Sr.

became the Co-Principal Investigator and Co-Research Associate, respectively, as counterparts to myself and Mr. Terence P. Barry. Research continued at ISCOF through 1987.

Concurrently, we continued collaboration with re:;earchers at UPV, the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC), and the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR). The results of these combined research efforts and collaborations are reported here.

Although we did not meet all of our original goals, we are satisfied with the progress we made during our two year project period. We have clearly pointed out the direction where future research on the spotted scat should go, and feel that our contributions, reported here, will form the foundation on which to build additional progress towards developing practical and commercially viable methodologies for the spawning, larviculture, and growout of the spotted scat.

–  –  –

We are very grateful to a number of institutions and individuals who contributed in ninny ways to the success of this project. The most important contributors were the individuals in the project personnel list which follows. The research assistants and aides were responsible for implementing most of the research work. We thank them for the long hours they devoted to the project, their willingness to take on additional assignments, and their steadfast dedication. We would like to single out Mr. Leopoldo Anas for the special contributions he made to the project. Special thanks also go to Amy Lynn Reyes Barry. Besides serving as the project accountant, she managed the data bases, performed all of the statistical analyses, and played an indispensable role in preparing the final project report.

We are also grateful for various assistances given by individuals not listed in the project personnel list. We thank Dr. Kent Carpenter for his numerous contributions; Ms.

Josefa Tan-Fermin for preparing histological sections of the spotted scat ovary; Mr. Luis Ma. Garcia for his helpful ideas and discussions; Mr. Nestor Diasanta, for his artwork;

Dr. Flor Lacanilao, Chief, SEAFDEC, AQD, for the use of SEAFDEC equipment; and USAID for providing the funds for our work.

–  –  –

Co-Principal Investigators Dr. Jose A. Carreon University of the Philippines Dr. Benigno P. Panistante Iloilo State College of Fisheries Dr. Arlo W. Fast University'of Hawaii at Manoa Co-Research Associates Mr. Henry D. Biona, Sr.

Iloilo State College of Fisheries Mr. Terence P. Barry Universitj, of Hawaii at Alanoa Accountants Amy Lynn Reyes Barry Julie Jomen Research Assistants Milagros Castahos Maria Paz Socorro Macahilig Rizaline Tabanda Maria Paz Naciongayo-Aguana Research Aides Leopoldo Anas George Anas Rodney Bayogos Nepthally Patina Additional Contributors Paul Felipe S. Cruz Universit'y of the Philippines in the Visayas (UPV) Ms. Leah May Ver University of the Philippines in the Visa)'as (UPV) Mrs. Gilda Lio-Po Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC) Mrs. Leticia S. Magistrado Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR) Mr. Jose M. Natividad BFAR-IDRC Fish Health Project Mr. Nelson D. Gerundo BFAR-IDRC Fish Health Project

I. INTRODUCTION

Terence P. Barry and Arlo W. Fast The spotted scat I (Scatophagus argus) is one of few teleost species of economic importance that could potentially thrive in tropical brackishwater fish ponds (Bardach et al., 1972). Scats are abundant in the nearshore waters of Southern and Southeast Asia where they inhabit estuaries, coastal mudflats, mangrove swamps, harbors, and upstream rivers. These habitats are characterized by extreme fluctuations in salinity, dissolved oxygen, temperature, tidal movements, river runoff, turbidity, and turbulence. The adaptations which allow the scat to live in this ever-changing environment endow it with many biological attributes highly desired in a cultured finfish.

Scats are economically important for two major reasons. First, they are an attrctive species, and in body shape resemble the butterfly fishes, a group to which they nre closely related. Scats are a popular aquarium species because of their appearance, hardiness, slow growth and "personable" behavior (Morgan, 1983). There is a continuous, high lemand for scat in the tropical aquarium fish market, and they sell for a very good price. Secondly, ia the Philippines, scats are considered to be one of the highest quality food fishes, and command an excellent price at the market (Table 1.1). Scats as small as 50 gm are almost as highly priced per kilogram as larger specimens.

Proiect Obiectives. The primary objectives of our PSTC project were to determine the feasibility of culturing scat in brackishwater ponds, and to develop standardized techniques for its propagation. To achieve these objectives, we conducted experiments designed to 1) establish suitable pond growout strategies for scat, taking advantage, if possible, of the highly developed technology already widely used throughout the Philippines for culturing milkfish, and 2) develop reliable methodologies to induc2 gonadal maturation and spawning of captive male and female scat.

Research Priorities. Highest rriority was given to the pond growout research. If scat are ever cultured commercially as 'ood fish, their growout will most likely occur in earthen punds. For this reason, we felt a need to determine the survival, growth and culturability of scat in ponds. Unpublished data obtained from researchers at the University of the Philippines in the Visayas (UPV), and the Philippine Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR) suggested that scat grew very slowly. First, we needed to verify these reports, and then, if our results showed it was necessary, we planned to develop profitable, alternative growout strategies which took the scat's slow growth rate into consideration. We evaluated two growout strategies. First, we tested the effects of a

–  –  –

Species

------------- --- -- -- -- Price/kg Common Name Local Name(s) Scientific Name

-----------Spanish Mackerel Tangigue Cybium commerson 30-60 Red Snapper Maya-maya Lutjanus malabaricus 24-35 Grouper Lapu-lapu Eoinephelus sp. 35-60 Sea Bass Bulgan, Apahap Lates calcarifer 30-60 Yellow Fin Tuna Albacora Neothunnus macropterus 30-35 Spotted Scat Kitang, Kikiro Scatophagus arg2s 60-80 Cavalla Talakitok Caranx sp. 20-40 Milkfish Bangus Chanos cha~os 15-25

-----------------------------------------------------------potent anabolic hormone, 17a-methyltestosterone (MT) on the growth of scat in monoculture ponds at two densities. The MT was incorporated into prepared feed and administered to the fish with their daily rations. The other strategy evaluated the feasibility of culturing scat in polyculture with each of the two other widely cultured brackishwater species in the Philippines, namely milkfish (Chanos chanos), and the tiger prawn or "sugpo" (Penaeus monodon). We evaluated a growout strategy whereby two crops of milkfish or prawn would be produced for every one crop of the slower growing scat from the same pond.

High priority was also given to studies on induced maturation and spawning. For female scat, our experiments focused on the use of cholesterol-based, pelleted implants of synthetic LHRH (LHIRHa). We sought to induce vitellogenesis, final oocyte maturation, and spawning in a predictable time. For males, we sought to find an effective method to stimulate spermiation on demand, using various hormones, and hormone combinations, administered in different ways.

We also investigated, in both aquaria and ponds, the dose-response effects of potential growth-promoting hormones in scat. We documented the occurrence of various diseases and parasites of the scat, and developed effective prophylactic and curative treatments against them. We also conducted experiments to determine the tolerance limits of scat fry to changes in salinity, temperature, and pH. In addition, we thoroughly analyzed our field broodstock and fry collection data, and obtained important information on the natural history and biology of the spotted scat.

–  –  –



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