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«In-market Research to Identify Prime Target for Future Market Development under the auspices of Australia – Pakistan Agriculture Sector Linkages ...»

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Meeting with Management of Jiajiale Super stores Chain The management of the company offered to provide free space for promotion of Pakistani mangoes and Kinnow in their markets. They also advised the promotion of Pakistani mangoes at the moment of Festivals in China which are scheduled every year in end of September. Since there is a higher demand due to the festivals, the Pakistani late varieties can capture the Chinese market.

3.10 Visit of Fruit & Vegetable Wholesale Market, Urumqi The objective of visiting the fruit and vegetable wholesale market was to know about the marketing channel, the product flow mechanism and the potential of Pakistani mangoes in the local markets. In order to ascertain the first hand information the two wholesellers were also interviewed.

The markets operate through government supervised system. The auctioneers/wholesale agents carry out the selling business while, the supplier gives some incentive to the wholeseller or to the bidder. The market also depends upon the importers who import fruit from other provinces of China to this market (source of export to destinations like Kashgar which links China to Pakistan and Russia). Generally the fruit business is being carried out in the open vicinity. The hygienic conditions were not appropriate conforming to food safety standards.

11 Mango wholesalers: briefed by Dr. Tim

There were only two wholesalers, dealing in mango. One of them had got only Chinese Color mangoes. She told the team that mangoes on display were taken from southern China, where the harvest season starts in the month of March. The selling price at this wholesale shop was 13.3 Yuan/Kg. Regarding the consumers preference, she told that they prefer big mangoes (600g) and average sale was one ton per day, 50% of which goes to wet markets & variety stores. The wholeseller was unaware of any Pakistani mango variety and showed interest in importing mangoes from Pakistan. The preferred size was 300-400 g with red or pink blush. The level of firmness was desired as sprung mangoes & 0-10% yellow color with one to two weeks of shelf life.

Colour mango and Apple mango in wholesale market, Urumqi

The other wholeseller was the supplier to the retailers. He told the group that the consumer’s demand of mangoes is maximum between May and September (2.5 tons/ day). Average price of good quality mango ranges from 13-16 Yuan per Kg and the profit margin of wholesaler was 1-2 Yuan per Kg. The person showed keen interest to source mangoes from Pakistan with a medium size (300-400gram), hard mangoes at color stage of 0-10% yellow skin.

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This meeting was scheduled in order to ascertain the possibilities of rail transport and to understand the possible transport mechanism within China.

The contact person told the team that the refrigerated trains are available in China traveling from Urumqi to Guangzhou, Shanghai or other parts of China. The freight charges in a compartmentalized rail lorry carrying 45 tons weight is 131,250 Yuan from Urumqi to Guangzhou. Additional costs of 8.6 Yuan per ton (loading cost) and 0.50 Yuan per ton (road maintenance cost) add up for the total cost of freight through rail. The travel time from Kashgar to Guangzhou is 10 days by train. There exist possibilities for the road and rail transport but all depends upon the cost effectiveness.

The freight costs calculated back in Pakistan by PHDEB for export to China are given in Annex 6.

3.12 Running the Focus Group 1, Urumqi The Pakistani team got their mangoes from AQSIQ on September 05 after fulfilling the quarantine requirements of China. The AQSIQ had taken some samples from the consignment to observe if all the quarantine requirements were meeting.

The project team ran the first focus group in the office of Yuqi Biological Science and Technology and Development Ltd. Urumqi. Purpose of the focus group meeting was to undertake the sensory evaluations of the Pakistani late Chaunsa variety (White Chaunsa).

The focus group was comprised of six women from different areas, who had previously experienced eating mangoes.

–  –  –


1. The middle income group generally buys mangoes for their children, on festivals or as gift whereas low income group does not buy mangoes at all.

2. The ladies had no experience about Pakistani Mango.

–  –  –

It was further revealed from the focus group meeting that the Chinese market is new for the Pakistani mangoes. If the Pakistani exporters manage the supply of good quality mangoes, the market is certainly big and open for Pakistan.

The focus group meeting was followed by informal discussions on various issues of trade of perishables between Pakistan and China.

3.13 Visit to Golden Wing Mau (GWM) Agricultural Produce Co Ltd., Shenzhen China The GWM is dedicated to fresh produce export, import, wholesale and distribution to supermarkets, to become an integrated agricultural produce corporation with produce development in origin, distribution and logistics and terminal sales. The company claims to be the largest importer and distributor of fresh produce throughout China. The company supplies fresh produce in 20 cities of China and its main buyers include WalMart, SAM’s Club, METRO, JUSCO, Lotus, Hymall, CARREFOR and some Chinese superstore chains.

Meeting of Project team with GWM Management The ASLP team briefed the company about the Mangoes of Pakistan. The quantity of production, export and the time window was also discussed with the company’s executives. The company has already been importing the Pakistani Kinnows. The company executives also informed the ASLP team that the major functions of export to Chinese markets were presentation of the fruit, attractive packing, cost effectiveness and above all the taste where consumers are most important to make choices. The project 14 team was told that the company has been importing mangoes from Australia, Philippines, Thailand, Taiwan & Brazil. The Brazil mango has taken its position in the China market for the reason of late variety and supply at the time of moon festival (Mid September).

Regarding the presentation of mangoes the following information was shared with the team:Appearance and General Characteristics

1. The Chinese market prefers rich taste of mango (strong taste sensation)

2. Good pink/red blush (20-30% red or blush firm / hard mangoes and 10-30% of yellow color ripening stage)

3. Preferable size of around 600grams

4. Mangoes to be 70% ripe at the importers destination (China) 5. 7-8 days shelf life is required after reaching the importer

6. Mangoes with stickers (pasted on skin) in order to distinguish from local produce Mango Prices at the Superstores

1. Brazilian mango, 40-80 Yuan per 5 Kg box

2. Philippines mango, 120-180 Yuan per 12 Kg box

3. Thai mango, 70-80 Yuan per 5 Kg box

4. Taiwanese mango, 80-120 Yuan per 10 Kg box

5. Australian mango, 180-220 Yuan per 10 Kg box

–  –  –

The project team assured the company that the involvement of project and PHDEB will help them obtaining desired quality at the destination, and it was mutually decided to undertake trial studies in the coming crop season (2008).

3.14 Visit to WalMart, Shenzhen The project team visited the two different outlets of WalMart in Shenzhen to explore the opportunities and to evaluate the potential competitors of Pakistani mangoes in the retail market of Shenzhen. The team also observed the comparative prices of mangoes available on display in different superstores. Following is the feedback taken from the visit;

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3.15 Running the Focus Group 2, Shenzhen The Pakistani mangoes arrived Shenzhen on September 09, 2007. The mangoes were fully ripe at this stage and the colour was 100% yellow, even some of the mangoes had turned soft due to over ripening. The project team took the mangoes to a family apartment, where three women and three men participated in the focus group.

The objective of this focus group meeting was to undertake the sensory evaluations of the Pakistani Chaunsa variety among the customers of this city. Since, Shenzhen is one of the high income cities within China, and the customers have buying/purchasing power as high as 41 Yuan/Kg (as reflected during the retail market visit – WalMart), so, knowing the consumer’s preference for mango is very important.

16 Pakistani mangoes in Shenzhen Second Focus Group, Shenzhen


1. The retail price of mangoes from mid May to mid July is 3-5 Yuan per Kg and the price increases after July.

2. One of the participants liked the Pakistani white Chaunsa as it had strong flavor.

3. One of the participant told that this Mango resembles in taste like Durian fruit.

4. One of the group participants informed that she purchases 2 to 4 pieces of mangoes every day while another told that she buys mangoes once or twice every week.

5. The focus group revealed that mostly people purchase mangoes at least once every week during the peak season & there is no particular reason to buy mangoes.

6. Most of the Chinese people buy certain variety where as rest buy on appearance and presentation on the shop.

7. The focus group highlighted that important attributes to buy mangoes are variety, color (red & yellow), firmness and cost. Regarding the taste the group informed the ASLP team as “the most important and develops consumer’s loyalty to a certain variety”.

8. One of the group participants disclosed that he would check aroma of the mango before buying. Regarding the pricing of Pakistani Mangoes the group informed the ASLP team that if Pakistani mangoes taste sweet and give aroma they can pay the price up to 12-16 Yuan/Kg.

9. The group members also mentioned that sticker on mangoes is important and symbolic of good quality.

3.16 Meeting with General Manager, Shenzhen Agriculture Products Logistics Co.

Ltd., Shenzhen, China The Shenzhen Agriculture Products Logistics Co. Ltd., Shenzhen operates through the network of farms in China and supplies the fruits and vegetables to different cities of 17 China through JUSCO, WALMART, CARREFOUR, SAMS CLUB, Trust Mart (China) and A-best (China).

Mr. Fang Li Zun, the General Manager of the company met the project team in a hotel.

Dr. Timothy Sun (Project Research Officer) described the objectives of the project activity and introduced the mago varieties of Pakistan to Mr. Fang Li Zun. Also Mr Zun evaluated the Pakistani Chaunsa mangoes and disclosed that “Ta Thai Long is a Taiwanese variety of mangoes imported to China and it tastes similar to the White Chaunsa”.

The company was keenly interested in the route & travel time to Shenzhen along with costs of Pakistani Mangoes. The possibilities of by sea transport of mangoes to China were also discussed. (A study of PHDEB on routes and cost of export to China is attached as Annex 6).

Mr. Fang evaluating the external fruit quality Mr. Fang evaluating the internal fruit quality The possibilities of trading Pakistani Kinnows in China were also discussed during the meeting. The company showed keen interest in import of Kinnows from Pakistan. The Manager Technical, PHDEB also gave briefing about the harvesting season, price, quality and quantity of Kinnows.

Mr. Fang the General Manager of the company also showed interest to visit Pakistan in February 2008 to see the Kinnow Industry of Pakistan. He suggested that we need to promote two way trade in the interest of both countries. He wished to be linked up with Pakistani exporters and processors.

3.17 Visit of Shenzhen Agricultural wholesale market The Shenzhen Agriculture Products Logistics Co. Ltd also operates the wholesale market in the Shenzhen. The project team was welcomed at the wholesale market of Shenzhen by Mr. Fang and was introduced to the management of the market. The whole group visited the wholesale shops in the market to evaluate the potential of Pakistani mangoes in this market. It was observed that imported mango was also displayed on some wholesale shops; particularly the Australian R2E2, imported from Taiwan was being sold at wholesale price of 18.8 Yuan per Kg. Similarly the market was abundant in supply of Australian Murcot mandarin being sold at 18 Yuan per Kg. Navel Oranges from South

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Meeting of project team with management of Shenzhen Agricultural wholesale market Dr. Timothy showed the White Chaunsa variety to the wholesalers which was evaluated for sensory parameters. The contact persons informed that grading is very important for Pakistani mangoes to enter in this market. Similarly, the number of count in each box must be of uniform size and weight.

Quality evaluation at wholesale market, Shenzhen

3.18 Visit to Guangzhou Jiangnan Fruit and Vegetable Wholesale Market Development Co Ltd.

This market is one of the largest wholesale markets in China. The market operates by different segments divided by the origin of the produce. Different countries had their sections in the market and their fruit comes in their section and gets sold by the company operators through profit sharing percentage. Mr. Guan, the General Manager Assistant, was given a briefing by Dr. Timothy Sun regarding the activities of the ASLP project and the purpose of the current activity. The White Chaunsa mangoes were also presented to the General Manager, who liked the taste and welcomed the import of Pakistani mangoes to this market.

19 Meeting of project team with General Manager of Guangzhou wholesale market

The highlights of the meeting are given as under;

1. The Jiangnan fruit market offered the support to promote the Pakistani mangoes, provided the PHDEB develops understanding with their company

2. The company also offered Pakistan to set up its section in the market

3. The General Manager of the company asked for invitation to Pakistan by PHDEB for his visit to mango Industry of Pakistan in end of May 2008

4. Consumer’s Section China is not a homogeneous market. There are huge differences in markets between Xinjiang and Guangdong. As a result the marketing strategy should be different between these two provinces.

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